Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (as) has said: "One who offers his prayers along with Adhan and Iqamah, two rows of angels pray behind him, while one who offers his prayers with only the Iqamah and without the Adhan, one row of angels prays behind him." Imam was asked: "And how long is each row?" Imam replied: "At the very minimum, its length is the distance between East and West, while at the maximum, its length is the distance between the earth and the heavens." (Wasail ash-Shia, vol. 4, p. 620)
Rules & Method of Adhan and Iqamah
925. It is Mustahab for man and woman to say Adhan and Iqamah before offering daily obligatory prayers, but for other Mustahab or obligatory prayers, they are not prescribed. But before prayers of Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adha, it is Mustahab to say "As-Salah" three times, provided that the prayers are going to be offered in congregation.
926. It is recommended that Adhan be pronounced in the right ear of the child, and Iqamah in its left ear, on the day it is born or before the umbilical cord is cast off.
927. Adhan consists of the following 18 sentences:
Allah is greater than any
Allahu Akbar - four times
|I testify that there is no god but Allah||Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah - two times|
|I testify that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger||Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah - two times|
|I testify that Ali is the Vicergent of Allah||Ash hadu anna Amiral Momeneena Hajjattul lah- two times|
|Hasten to prayers||Hayya'alas Salah - two times|
|Hasten to deliverance||Hayya'alal Falah - two times|
|Hasten to the best act||Hayya'ala Khayril 'Amal - two times|
|Allah is greater than any description||Allahu Akbar - two times|
|There is no god but Allah||La ilaha illal lah - two times|
In between the Adhan & Iqamah one may make one sijdah ,sit & recite recite this dua (also after adhan)
As regard to Iqamah, it consists of 17 sentences. In Iqamah, Allahu Akbar is reduced in the beginning to twice, and at the end, La ilaha illal lah to once, and after Hayya 'ala Khayril 'Amal, Qadqa matis Salah (i.e. the prayers has certainly been established) must be added two times.
928. Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu'minina 'Aliyyan Waliyyullah ( I testify that the Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (AS) is the vicegerent of Allah) is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah with the niyyat of Qurbat.
929. There should not be an unusual interval between the sentences of Adhan or Iqamah, and if an unusual gap is allowed between them, the Adhan or Iqamah will have to be repeated.
930. If Adhan and Iqamah are recited in a melodious tune, rendering it musical, that is, like the way singers sing to entertain the people, it is haraam. If it it does not become musical, it is Makrooh.
931. Whenever a person
offers two prayers together, one after the other, he will not say Adhan for
the second prayers if he has said it for the first, irrespective of whether
it was better in that case to pray together or not, like on the day of
Arafah (9th Dhul Hijjah) for Zuhr and Asr prayers, or the night of Eid ul
Adha for Maghrib and Isha at Mash'ar.
But the Adhan does not become necessary, only if there is no prolonged gap between the two prayers. A small time lapse between two prayers, caused by Duas or Nafilah, will not be taken as a prolonged gap. And if one gives Adhan, as per obligatory precaution, one should not make the niyyat of it being prescribed by Shariah, especially in the last two cases of Arafah and Mash'ar.
932. If Adhan and Iqamah has been pronounced for congregational prayers, a person joining that congregation should not pronounce Adhan and Iqamah, for his own prayers.
933. If a person entering a mosque finds that congregational prayers are over, he may not give Adhan or Iqamah for his own prayers, as long as the lines have not broken up, and the people have not dispersed. This means it is not an emphasised Mustahab act for him. If he intends to give Adhan or Iqamah anyway, then it should be with very low voices. If he is joining another prayers with congregation, he should not give Adhan or Iqamah.
934. At a place where congregational prayers have just ended, and the lines have not yet broken up, if a person wants to begin his prayers individually, or with another congregation, he is exempted from pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah on six conditions:
935. If a person doubts about the third condition out of the six conditions mentioned above, that is, if he doubts whether or not the congregational prayers are void, he is exempted from pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah. But if he doubts about any one of the remaining conditions, it is better that he should pronounce Adhan and Iqamah, with the niyyat of Raja' (a hope that he may be doing a worthy deed).
936. It is Mustahab that when a person hears Adhan, he follows by uttering together in a low voice whatever he hears.
937. If a person hears another person pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah, regardless of whether he has repeated with him the same or not, he may not say Adhan and Iqamah for his own namaz, if there is no delay or time gap between them and his namaz.
938. If a man listens to the Adhan pronounced by a woman with lustful amusement, he will not be exempted from pronouncing Adhan. In fact, even if intention is not lustful, the exemption is a matter of Ishkal.
939. It is necessary that the Adhan and Iqamah of a congregational prayers are pronounced by a man. However, if a woman pronounces Adhan and Iqamah in a congregational prayers of women, it is sufficient.
940. Iqamah should be pronounced after Adhan. Moreover, Iqamah should be pronounced in a standing position, and with Wudhu, Ghusl or tayammum.
941. If a person pronounces the sentences of Adhan or Iqamah without proper order, like if he says 'Hayya 'alal falah' before 'Hayya alas Salah; he should repeat from the place where the order has been disturbed.
942. An inordinate lapse of time should not be allowed between Adhan and Iqamah, and if an excessive gap is allowed between them, it is Mustahab that Adhan be pronounced once again. Similarly, if an excessive time gap is allowed between Adhan, Iqamah, and the prayers, it is Mustahab to repeat them for that prayers.
943. Adhan and Iqamah should be pronounced in correct Arabic. Hence, if they are pronounced in incorrect Arabic, or one letter is uttered for another, or if, for example, its translation is pronounced, it will not be valid.
944. Adhan and Iqamah for a prayer should be pronounced when the time for that prayer has set in. If a person pronounces them before time, whether it be intentionally or due to forgetfulness, his action is void, except when the time of namaz sets in during the namaz being offered, then that is valid, as explained in rule 752.
945. If a person doubts before pronouncing Iqamah, whether he has pronounced Adhan, he should pronounce Adhan. But, if he doubts during Iqamah whether he has pronounced Adhan, the pronouncing of Adhan is not necessary.
946. If before pronouncing a part of Adhan or Iqamah, a person doubts whether he has pronounced the part preceding it, he should pronounce the preceding part. But, if he doubts when in the process of pronouncing a part of Adhan or Iqamah whether he has pronounced the part preceding it, it is not necessary to pronounce that part.
947. It is Mustahab that while pronouncing Adhan, a person should stand facing Qibla and should have performed Wudhu or Ghusl. It is Mustahab to place the hands on his ears, and raise one's voice. Also, one should pause between the recitals
Q & A on Adhan
|Q. Is it recommended to recite
Adhan in a melodious tune?
A. If Adhan is recited in a melodious tune, rendering it musical, that is, like the way singers sing to entertain the people, it is Haraam. If it does not become musical, it is Makrooh.
|Q. Is it recommended to recite
Adhan before each prayer?
A. Whenever a person offers two prayers together, one after the other, having recited Adhan for the first prayer, he will not recite Adhan for the second prayer. But reciting Adhan for the second prayer does not become necessary only if there is no prolonged gap between the two prayers. A small time lapse between two prayers caused by reciting Duas or praying Nafilah will not be taken as a prolonged gap.
|Q. Is it recommended to follow
the recitation of Adhan when one hears the Adhan being recited?
A. It is Mustahab that when a person hears Adhan, he follows by uttering together in a low voice whatever he hears.
|Q. Should there be any time gap
between Adhan & Iqamah?
A. An inordinate lapse of time should not be allowed between Adhan & Iqamah, & if an excessive gap is allowed between them, it is Mustahab that Adhan be pronounced once again.
|Q. Is it recommended to
pronounce Adhan facing Qibla?
A. It is Mustahab that while pronouncing Adhan, a person should st& facing Qibla & should have performed Wudhu or Ghusl. It is Mustahab to place the hands on his ears, & raise one’s voice. Also, one should pause between the recital of different sentences.
More on Adhan & Iqamah
Source: Minhaj al Salihin and Islamic Laws of Ayatullah al Uzama Sayyid Ali al-Husaini Al-Sistani Dama-Dhilluhu
The Mustahab Acts of Adhan and Iqamah
It is mustahab to recite Adhan and Iqamah before starting the obligatory daily Salat, prayed within the prescribed times of Salat or before starting to pray Qada Salat, whether one is in one’s place of residence or a traveller, in good health or in sickness, in a congregation or on one’s own, and for both genders. It is emphasised that they should be recited before starting to pray the Salat within its prescribed time, particularly before the morning and Maghrib Salat. However, more emphasis is placed on reciting Iqamah than Adhan before starting Salat.
Adhan and Iqamah are not prescribed for mustahab prayers or for other obligatory prayers except for the daily Salat (included in it is Salatul-Jumu’a).
The Adhan for the second of two Salat (Zuhr/Asr and Maghrib/Isha) which are prayed one after the other is not prescribed when they are prayed at the same time. However, it is recommended to recite when they are prayed at separate time. It not recommended when they are prayed one after the other at the same time.
The Mustahab Acts during Adhan and Iqamah
During the Adhan it is mustahab to be in a state of ritual purity (wudhu/ghusl), to be in Qiyam, (standing) and facing the Qibla. It is makruh to talk while reciting or being recited. This also applies to Iqamahwhile reciting or being recited. As for reciting the Iqamah, it is a condition, apparently, that one has to be in a standing position (qiyam) and also in a state of ritual purity (Wudhu/Ghusl). After saying “Qad qamat al-salat”, the conditions are further emphasised to be in place, unless it is connected with the Salat. It is mustahab in both, Adhan and Iqamah, not to pronounce the vowel at the final word, and also to go slow in the Adhan but fast in the Iqamah; to pronounce clearly the ‘alif’ and the ‘ha’ in uttering the Name of Allah; to raise the hands high and place the thumbs in the ears during Adhan, and to recite loudly if the Muezzin is a male. It is also mustahab to recite Iqamah a little louder but lower than in reciting the Adhan.
The rules for both Adhan and Iqamah do not apply in the following cases:
First: The above-mentioned rules do not apply to the person who joins the congregational prayers after the Adhan and Iqamah have been recited, irrespective of whether or not he has heard it and whether or not the prayers have started and whether he is the Imam or the Ma’mum (the follower).
Second: They also do not apply to the person who enters the Mosque before the congregation disperses. If a person wants to pray the Salat on his own (furadah), then he does not have to recite Adhan andIqamah provided that he prays in a Mosque but if he prays at any other place, the rules would apply for both Adhan and Iqamah.
Third: If a person heard another person reciting the Adhan and Iqamah. This is provided that there is not a great interval between his prayer and his hearing it, and that he listens to all the parts.
The Procedure for reciting Adhan and Iqamah
First: Make an intention (niyyat) of nearness to Allah (qurbatan ila Llah) at the beginning and maintain it throughout the Adhan and Iqamah,
Second and Third: Intellect (‘aql) and belief (iman) are essential requirements. Apparently, it suffices for a mumayyiz (child who can distinguish right from wrong) to recite Adhan but there is ishkal (difficulty) in allowing him to recite Iqamah.
Fourth: Man should recite the Adhan and Iqamah for men, while woman should recite it for women. The Adhan and Iqamah for women can only be valid for women regardless of being mahram. A woman who leads the prayers for women can sufficiently recite Adhan and Iqamah.
Fifth: Recite the Adhan and Iqamah in sequence, first Adhan and then Iqamah. Words in both should also be recited in sequence. If the Iqamah has been recited first, then it should be repeated after the Adhan. If the words have not been recited in sequence, then they should be repeated so as to maintain the sequence. In case of a break in continuity (muwalat) they should be repeated all over again.
Sixth: Continuity (muwalat) in the words of both Iqamah and Salat should be maintained. There should be no break between Iqamah and Salat in a way that would destroy their form. Similarly, the usual continuity between Iqamah and Salat must be observed. A longer break between Adhan and Iqamah is permissible, as it is mustahab to pray 2 rak’at Salat or perform a sajdah or recite dhikr or Du’a.
Seventh: The Adhan and Iqamah should be recited in a correct and simple way (tarteel) in Arabic, and not in a lyrical, musical tune or in any other language. It is prohibited (haraam) to recite them in a musical or singing and entertaining form. If it does not become musical tune, it is makrooh, and invalid if recited in any other language.
Eighth: The Adhan should be recited at the time for Salat, for it is not valid to recite them before Salat time. However, it is permissible to recite the Adhan before the time for Fajr prayers in order to announce to the people so as to caution them and wake them up to pray, and preferably not with the intention of announcing the onset of the time of prayer.
It is recommended that a person who is appointed to recite Adhan is a righteous person (‘adil), with the knowledge of Salat times, and his voice is clearly and sufficiently audible. He should recite Adhan from an elevated place.
It is mustahab that when a person hears Adhan, he follows by uttering together in a low voice whatever he hears.
What a person should do if he omits Adhan and Iqamah
If a person intentionally omits Adhan and Iqamah, or either of them, and commences Salat by reciting Takbiratul Ihram, he cannot abandon the Salat and revert to reciting either Adhan or Iqamah and start the Salat again.
If a person, unintentionally, omits both Adhan and Iqamah or recites Iqamah and omits the Adhan, and commences Salat, it is recommended that he reverts to reciting both the Adhan and Iqamah again before he recommences the Salat. However, it depends upon the time and the stage during the course of Salat that he happens to remember. It can either be before the beginning of the recitation of the first Surah or after it, or before commencing the Ruku’ or after it, so long as he has not completed the Salat, he can revert.However, remembering during the earlier course of the Salat is better than at a later stage.
It is recommended that Adhan be recited in the right ear of the child and Iqamah in his/her left ear, on the day a child is born or before the umbilical cord is removed.