Name :Jamal ud Deen ibne Noor ud Deen Ali  ibne Fazil Ahmed ibne jamal ud Deen ibne Taqi ibne Mohammed Saleh
Born On: 11 Shawwal 911 H                 At: Jiba, Jabl Amil, Lebanon
Died  On:                      966 H                            At: a wilderness returning from                                                                                                         
                                                                          Makka Towards Constantinople
As is evident from the title, Shaheed e Saani is one of the prominent martyrs in the annals of Shia history. Our scholars and historians have given him this title because after Shaheed e Awwal, he is the most prominent personality who had been martyred because of his propagation of the word of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s).
One should bear the fact in mind that our Ulema have been categorized into four categories. The Ulema who lived and worked during the times of the 11 Imams (a.s) are remembered as Ashab (the Companions) and not as Ulema. From the time the 12th Imam (a.s) went into hiding till the time of  Allama Hilli are categorized as the Ulema e Mutaqaddameen ( or the Early Scholars). After the departure of Allama Hilli till about a hundred years ago the scholars are categorized as the Ulema e Mutakhireen (The Later Scholars). Sheik Murtaza is the last prominent scholar of this category who lived about hundred years ago. That was the period when generally the Momineen lived in Taqayya (or Dissimulation). From the time of the Prophet (s.a) till the going into the hiding of the 12th Imam (a.s) , and thereafter, the scholars were facing persecution and martyrdom. It will almost be impossible to prepare a list of those martyrs. During the time of Allama Hilli the followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) had become a force to reckon with. Allama Hilli went to Iran and after a historical debate in the court of the King Khuda Banda attracted a majority of the population there to the Right Path. The scholars gave the title of Shaheed e Awwal to Sheik Jamal ud Deen Makki who was a disciple of Fakhr al Mohaqqeen who was the erudite son of Mohaqqaq Hilli. We are  familiar that in any field of activity, the son acquires expertise in the discipline that the father follows. Thus a genealogy of experts is established in that field. Similarly there can be a series of scholars descending from mentor to disciple and so on. Shaheed e Awwal too was the erudite disciple of Fakhr al Mohaqqaqeen. After his martyrdom, he was rightly given the title of Shaheed e Awwal.  Shaheed e Saani, the Second Martyr, too acquired his learning under the tutelage of the illustrious family of Allama Hilli.
We must mention another thing at this stage that there have been very few scholars of the caliber of Shaheed e Saani. Another point must be noted that all the scholars who came after Shaheed e Saani may be counted as his disciples because he penned a book,“Shara al Lam-aa”, which is taught as a text book in all the seminaries that train the Ulema of the future. This is one book, after studying which, a person qualifies to be called an Aalim (Scholar). The book is in two volumes.
While Shaheed e Saani is his title, his name is Jamal ud Deen ibne Noor ud Deen ibne Fazil Ahmed ibne jamal ud Deen ibne Taqi ibne Mohammed Saleh. The sixth in the line of his genealogy, Mohammed Saleh, was a disciple of Allama Hilli. Shaheed e Saani is one of the eminent Shia scholars in whose families we trace eminent scholars for many generations. His earlier six ancestors were all scholars and three of them were  Mujtahids. Shaheed e Saani had a son, Sheik Hassan who has authored a book “Muaalim al Deen”. The book is of such importance that one cannot become a Mujtahid without studying it assiduously. Therefore we might say that all those who become Mujtahids are his disciples!
Shaheed e Saani was born at Jaba which is a small town in Jabl Amil in Lebanon. This is the felicitous territory that has no equal in the birth of Mujtahids. Shaheed e Saani was born on 13th of Shawwal 911 H. He was martyred on a Friday in the month of Rajab. His age was 55 or 56 years. Where he was martyred and where his remains were interred, we shall discuss later. 
We have mentioned earlier that Shaheed e Saani was born on 13 Shawwal 911 H in the house of Noor ud Deen Ali in Jiba. Since he was born in a family of learned persons, he was inclined towards acquisition of knowledge from very early days. His parents had great love for him and it is recorded through his own words that his father had never beaten him nor he allowed his mentor to give him corporal punishment during his studies. Shaheed e Saani completed the first recitation of the Holy Quran at the age of 9 years. Then his father got him admitted formally to a seminary. At that time he was so small that he didn’t realize where his father was taking him along. He said that his father not only loved him very much but he took great interest in his education. The first thing that his father told to the tutor at the time of his admission to the seminary was not to beat him. When he finished the first book of the Arabic language and said that if he gave the correct reply he would be given a grand gift. Thus giving him incentives, Shaheed e Saani’s father encouraged him to make good progress in his studies. When Shaheed e Saani was at the age of 17 years, in 925 H, his father demised.
After the death of Shaheed e Saani there was no other scholar of eminence in the town where he could purse higher learning. Therefore, under advice of his elders, he moved to another village, Maiz, in the vicinity. Those days Sheik Ali ibne Hassan Abd al Aali Qarki was the most eminent scholar at Maiz. Shaheed e Saani studied under him for 8 years. He was not just a disciple but became the most favorite disciple of the Sheik. He says about Shaheed e Saani that while he was asleep one night, he saw a dream that many persons were sitting along with him. They were all thirsty and a person came there with a goblet of water and all the thristy persons surrounded him. The person didn’t give attention to anyone of them and went near his brother. He put the faucet of the goblet to the mouth of his brother. He drank a little water but the person didn’t remove the faucet from his mouth till he drank all the water in the goblet. The person then departed. When the Sheik awoke he thought that his brother would achieve a high status in learning.
Sheik Ali ibne Abd al Aali Qarki is also known as the Mohaqqaq Saani. All the Shia scholars are unanimous about this title and even the scholars of the other schools recognize his erudition. If he wasn’t there, there might not have remained any followers of Al e Mohammed (s.a) in Iran. After Khaja Naseer ud Deen Toosi, none other has done propagation of the word of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) as did Mohaqqaq Qarki. After Khaja Naseer ud Deen Toosi the largest numbers of persons adopted his following (Taqleed). Some scholars of the other school say that it was Mohaqqaq Qarki who invented the Shia school and that this Faith never existed before him. Only after him the people in the world realized that there is a faith called the Shia Faith! This claim certainly isn’t correct. His achievement was that he presented the Shia Faith in a manner that it was accepted widely. There was a time when the evil practice of  Tabarra (Malediction) of  the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) vanished from other places, the people of Isfahan continued with the foul practice. Sheik Ismail, a scion of the learned scholar, Sheik Safi ud Deen, gathered a small force and slowly established his rule all over Iran. He wrote a letter to Mohaqqaq Qarki to go over there and take care of the administration. It is said tha Shah Ismail had expired and after him Shah Tahmasp was ruling when Mohaqqaq Qarki reached Iran. Shah Tahmasp wanted to hand over the reins of power to him, but Mohaqqaq Qarki said that ruling wasn’t his job that was the prerogative of the Imam. The king said that he was the Naib e Imam (a.s) and that he should run the administration on behalf of the Imam (a.s)..Mohaqqaq Qarki accepted the assignment and started traveling far and wide in the country. He thus propagated the word of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) and the entire country started following their Creed. The enemies of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) planned and poisoned him on 18 Zil Hijja 940 H.
Mohaqqa Qarki not only propagated the Faith but was also one of the most erudite Mujtahids. He instructed Shaheed e Saani in all the disciplines. When Shaheed e Saani was 22 years old, after keeping him under his tutelage, Mohaqqaq Qarki left for Iran in 933 H. Shaheed e Saani couldn’t go with his mentor because he still had to acquire more lerning. Now Shaheed e Saani changed his residence to Qark where his aunt’s husband had started a Madrassa. Shaheed e Saani spent a number of years with this uncle of his. He also married his aunt’s daughter there, who was his first spouse. From that time till his death Shaheed e Saani remained peripatetic, traveling all the time. He is one of our scholars who spent major part of their lives in travel. He went to Damascus and received instruction in the field of medicine, jurisprudence and learned the art of recitation of the Quran. After remaining in Damascus for two years he returned home to Jabl Amili. After one year he went to Egypt and studied under the scholars there for 6 years. Those scholars had no connection with the Shia faith. But those days there was no distinction between Shia and Sunni in the matters of imparting and acquiring learning. Therefore he got admitted to the Azhr University and studied under the tutelage of 16 eminent scholars. Then enroute to his home he performed the Haj in 944 H. There is a statement of Shaheed e Saani in our books that he became a Mujtahid in that year. Till 33 years of age he didn’t reveal that he was a Mujtahid. But he had written a book “Shara Irshad”. When a person becomes a Mujtahid he writes a book on his Fatwas (Edicts). He had written the book but he kept it hidden at his home. His disciple, Hassan ibne Ali, said that one night of 945 or 946 H he saw a dream in his sleep as if he was sitting at a lesson delivered by his mentor, Shaheed e Saani, who was delivering his talk from the pulpit. The mentor continued delivering his learned talk and he remembered the entire content of the lecture. His eyes openend in the morning and he immediately went to Shaheed e Saani and told him about his strange and interesting dream. On the instruction of the mentor, he repeated the dream in every detail. When he finished the narration, the mentor smiled and said, “Perhaps the time has come when I shall have to make the announcement.” Surprised, I asked, “Announcement of what?” He said, “Don’t you know about the Sermon?” When I expressed my lack of information, he went inside his house and brought out his book “Shara e Irshad” and said, “This is the book in which I have included a Fatwa (Edict) . This is a proof of my Ijtehad.. So far I had hidden it.  Open the book and read its first page”. As soon as I saw the first page, it was the same Sermon that I had heard in the night. I was surprised that the Sermon that I had heard during my dream, my mentor had written in his book many years earlier! My mentor said, “Perhap the Command has come now that this book must be publicized now!” Then he published the book “Shara e Irshad”. Four years went by. Shaheed e Saani was 37 years in 948 H when his Ijtehad became known in the entire Shia world. People started his Taqleed (Emulation). From 948H he was Mujtahid Aalam (Senior Mujtahid) and he was martyred in 966 H. However, he was living in seclusion. The area in which he lived, Jabl Amili, was under the Turkish Ottoman Realm. They wouldn’t tolerate any person holding any belief other than their own. Therefoe the Shaheed e Saani was living a secluded life of Taqayya (Dissimulation). Only the followers of the Faith of Ahl al Bayt (a.s) knew about him and they knew how to keep the confidence.
His Ijtehad became known in 948 H. In the year 951 he had to travel to Constantinople, present day Istanbol, which was the capital of the Turkish Empire those days. His journey to Constantinople was very interesting. We shall mention its salient features. When he started on his journey and reached Halaq, a town in Syria, and halted there. There he learnt that there were two ways for going to Constantinople. One was the highway that was generally used by most of the travelers. The other route was tortuous and was seldom used by the wayfarers. From Halaq he had to join the company of some caravan. In the olden days people used to travel in groups to protect themselves against robbers and highwaymen. He heard that there were two groups, each taking the different route to Constantinople. He did Istekhara and found that he must not take the highway route and go on the less frequented road. He was surprised. But he had done the Istekhara. He did not join the group that took to the highway. The other group was to start the journey within the next few days. Then he heard that the second group had  postponed their journey! They had the program of travel, but the date of departure was uncertain.He was worried that he was stuck there after traveling quite some distance. After some days he learnt that another group was getting ready to take the highway route to Constantinople. He did the Istekhara again from the Holy Quran and the Verse that came in front of his eyes was—Wasbir la Hukm Rabbak—Be patient on the Command of Allah. This was a clear instruction for him. He let the second group go. He heard that a third group will also take the highway route. He did Istekhara again The Verse that came in view was---“One who goes behind them will invite Allah’s ire” He allowed the third group to depart too. After some days he heard that the fourth group was getting ready to travel. He did the Istakhara again and was not allowed to travel. Now he was getting tired of waiting there. He heard that, alas, the group that was to travel on the less frequented road was getting ready to depart. When he opened the Holy Quran to do the Istekhara, the verse that came before his eyes said, “Al yaum kuntum maa tua doon---Today is the day when the promise that has been made to you will be fulfilled.” When he saw the Verse, he got worried. There wasn’t any sign of the departure of the group on that day and the Verse said that he should travel the same day. He was sitting worried when he found a person coming in his search. He called from a distance asking him to get ready that the group was about to leave. Shaheed e Saani kissed the Quran, kept it away carefully, prepared his baggage in a hurry and joined the group for the journey. Again and again, when he did Istakhara, he was commanded to wait with patience. He learnt that on the highway route there was acute famine in the villages and it wasn’t possible to get foodstuff for many days together. The practice those days was that the caravans didn’t carry provisions with them and arranged their food in the villages on the way.The groups that went earlier didn’t find any food on the way for days together, and when they got anything, the price was prohibitive. Anyway, Shaheed e Saani reached Constantinople and accomplished his task there. Now he thought that he had left home and his spouse was to deliver in the month of Jamadi al Awwal. He says that during the day he went out with his companions in the city of Constantinople and went to the mausoleum of Hazrat Abu Ayoob Ansari. Sultan Mohammed had built this mausoleum over the grave of the saint. After the ziarat he came out and it came to his mind that he must do the Istekhara. He had the copy of the Quran with him. He opened the Quran to do the Istakhara and the verse that came to his view was, “Wa basshar naa hu be ghulam haleem---We have given him good news of a son. Shaheed e Saani informed his companions about the Istakhara. After some days a group arrived in which there were some persons from his neighborhood. They gave him the good news that he was blessed with a son. After accomplishing his work in Constantinople, Shaheed e Saani called on the Qazi of the city. He noticed that the worthy had respect for the Ulema. The Qazi asked his opinion about a problem. Shaheed e Saani said that he would give him his opinion after 18 days. In those eighteen days he wrote a book on the subject and presented to the Qazi. He was surprised that a book could be written on the intricate subject in such a short time knowing that the person was a traveler and had no access to any material for research!
During the time of  Shaheed e Saani, writing was done by dipping the quill ina pot of ink. Generally the ink used to dry after writing one or two lines. It is said that Shaheed e Saani would write forty to fifty lines after dipping the quill into the ink once. This is the reason that Shaheed e Saani has written plenty of books that this faculty enabled him to write at a faster pace. The work that any other writer did in a couple of months, he would do in one month. He had written a book at Constantinople in 18 days and presented it to the Qazi of that city. The Qazi was surprised at his achievement and reported the matter to Sultan Salim who was the caliph of Turkey then. The Sultan immediately sanctioned a pension for Shaheed e Saani and asked him to go as a tutor to the Madrasa Nooria in the town of Yalaqath in Syria. They wanted a tutor who was an expert in more than one Fiqh. Those days the scholars following particular Fiqh were experts only in that Fiqh. The Sultan wanted a tutor who was an adept in all the Fiqhs. In the book presented to the Qazi, Shaheed e Saani had resolved the question on the basis of the four Fiqhs. The Sultan ultimately sent him to Baalbek and he announced there that he would impart instruction to students in all the four Fiqhs. But, in fact, he was also giving instruction in the fifth Fiqh, the Fiqha e Jafaria. It is said that he taught in the Madrasa for a long time. He was there in a state of Taqayya. But slowly people started realizing that he was giving instruction in a Fiqh that was unlike the four Fiqhs they knew of..He got wind of this feeling of the people and to save his life, he resigned and returned to his home town. He stayed in his own home till he was martyred. There are 20 to 25 Karamaat (sort of miracles) recorded in our books about Shaheed e Saani. The famous incident is that there is a Mehrab (Receptacle) in Masjid e Koofa where Hazrat Ali (a.s) used to stand for his prayer. This is the Mehrab where most of the Ulema and Mujtaheds like to go and offer their prayers. When Shaheed e Saani returned from Haj, he went for the Ziarat two years after that. When he reached Koofa he offered prayer at the Mehrab e Koofa. Then he offered prayers at the Mehrabs of other mosques. At the Hazrat Muqaddisa Mosque he noticed that the direction of the Mehrab needed correction. He announced that he wouldn’t lead the prayer according to the orientation of the existing Mehrab and that he would slightly turn his prayer mat to get the correct direction of the Qibla. The people told him that leading Mujtahids had prayed earlier in the mosque and none of them raised any objection about the Mehrab. There was one cleric, Abu Moosa, who said that Allama Hilli, Mohaqqaq Karki and Shaheed e Awwal had offered prayers there and had made no objection about the direction of the Mehrab. Sahaheed e saani said that he wasn’t objecting to what the great scholars did, but that he was highlighting his problem. For three days Abu Moosa didn’t offer prayer behind Shaheed e Saani. On the fourth day he joined the congregation behind Saheed e Saani. After the prayer Shaheed e Saani asked him about his change of mind. He said that he was in error. He continued that the previous night he saw a dream that the Prophet (s.a) had come with a group of companions, stood in front of the Mehrab, turned the mat in the same way as was done by Shaheed e Saani and offered the prayer. After the prayer the Prophet (s.a) looked at the congregation and said that any person who prays at this Mehrab and doesn’t shift his prayer mat a little, his prayer would be void. Abu Moosa said how it was possible for him not to accept his error.There is another interesting incident from Shaheed e Saani’s life. There was a very important book written by Allama Hilli. Over a period of time the writing on the pages of the book had completely faded out. You must be aware that there was a time when it was a pastime to burn the books written by the followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). Even the library of Shaheed e Saani was burned.which consisted of 2000 books. Only 100 books were salvaged from that library. Shaheed e Saani heard that a copy of Allama Hilli’s book that we mentioned earlier was available in the library of a scholar in Damascus. The owner of the library was neither a Momin nor was he a follower of Allama Hilli. Shaheed e Saani was wondering how to get the book from the person. He however started for Damascus to make a trial to get the book. During the journey, while he slept, he saw a dream. In his own words, “I reached a station during the journey. It was extremely cold and I decided to halt for the night! I slept there and then I dreamed that I reached a place where a function was going on. The function was at the place of Mohammed ibn e Kulaini who spent twenty years of his life collecting the traditions of the Imams (a.s).
Shaheed e Saani continues, “In the dream I saw that I reached Allama Kulaini’s house. Mohammed ibn e Kulaini was seated in the house. After some conversation he said, “O person! Your status is high! The Al e Mohammed (a.s) are very pleased with you!  Therefore I wish to give you a gift.” Saying this, he brought a book which was a fourth of his voluminous Usool e Kaafi and gave to me. I kissed the book, opened it and found that it was written on excellent paper. I asked Allama Kulaini why he was giving to me only a fourth of the book ? Allama Kulaini said, “People have done great injustice to my book! They have put errors in it, they made additions at their own volition and in some instances they have omitted several pages of the text! They were unable to copy the book properly! I have with me only a fourth of the complete book and I might have a few more pages at home! I shall go to search and bring them. “Saying this he entered the house. I saw my brther from Damascus coming in. He picked up the book and said, “This is a part of Mohammed Yaqub Kulaini’s “Usoole Kaafi”. I too have a portion of it with me at Damascus.” I asked him, “How much?” He said, “I have 3/4th of the book and the first 1/4th isn’t there! The paper is the same as this book and the calligraphy too is the same as this book!” I asked him to fetch it. He went out. After a while Mohammed Yaqub Kulaini came out of his room. He had some pages in his hands. The quality of the paper was very poor and the writing on it too was shabby. He said, “See! What hardship has been inflicted on me! I feel about it even now!” I told him, “It should please you to hear that 3/4th of the book is available in the same good condition as you have the 1/4th with a friend of mine and the two volumes would make the complete book.” Mohammed Kulaini raised his hands and prayed for me and my brother and said that he was relieved aftersuch a long time. He said, “The book is now in your hands! Don’t let it go in the hands of ignorant persons! When a book is copied, they make many changes in it!” At this point I woke up from my dream.
“I reached Damascus and was all the time thinking about the concern of Mohammed ibne Kulaini, His monumental work of 20 years was not handled properly by people. I reached the home of my brother,Zain ud Deen, and asked him, “Have you got a book with the title of  “Usool e Kaafi”  He said he had the incomplete book, which was 3/4th of the complete work. I asked him to bring the book. When he brought the book I noticed that it began from the very page that Mohammed ibne Kulaini had shown the text was missing from the book he had.” Shaheed e Saani joined both the portions and published the complete book.”
After staying in Damascus for some time, Shaheed e Saani told to his friend that he wanted to return home. The person said that since he was leaving him, he wished to make a gift to him He asked Shaheed e Saani what he would like to have as a gift? He said that he wanted to take a book from his library. From the thousands of books in the library, he picked up the incomplete copy of Usool e Kaafi.
Shaheed e Saani was a man of great piety. He led a very frugal life. He used to go into the forest during nights, collect the firewood , sell it and spend the proceeds for his living. In the day time he used to give lessons to his students. This was his daily routine. Shaheed e a Saani was such a pious person that he had an intuition that he was soon to be martyred. There is an incident in the life of Shaheed e Saani that Sheik Bahai has recorded in his book. His father and Shaheed e Saani were traveling together. They passed through a dense forest. Shaheed e Saani’s face became parched and said that a very pious person would be martyred at that place and that Momin will turn, in pain, on the ground in his blood. Similarly a disciple of Shaheed e Saani says that he was once going out with his mentor. On the way they passed a forest. The mentor asked him, “Do you know, what place is this?” The disciple said he didn’t know about the place. Shaheed e Saani said that was the place where he would be martyred soon! Two dreams of Shaheed e Saani are very prominently mentioned in our books. In one of the dreams he saw that he had entered the Heaven and many chairs are stacked in a row. On each chair was seated a scholar of repute. Besides Shaheed e Awwal a chair was vacant. He asked someone as to who would sit on that chair. He was told that the chair was for him. He understood that the time for him getting martyred was near.
. Sheik Bahai has mentioned another incident too with reference to what his father said. One morning he reached the home of Shaheed e Saani. He saw him sitting with his head pensively bent in thought. He asked Shaheed e Saani what he was brooding about? He replied, “I think I shall soon be a martyr!” Sheik Bahai’s father asked why he got such a thought. Shaheed e Saani said, “I saw in the dream that I had reached the house of Sayed Murtada Ilm al Huda. He had arranged a party and the Ulema were arriving one by one.He was receiving the guests with great respect and seating them on chairs. When I reached there, Sayed Murtada stood up respectfully and led me to a chair next to Shaheed e Awwal. This gives me an idea that I shall be a martyr after him!” Therefore, this dream of Shaheed e Saani and his getting the premonition again and again indicated that he was mentally ready for the eventuality. He was spending a life of dissimulation but knew that a day would come when the enemies would know his true identity. It was the year 965 or 966 when he got wind that his true identity was known to the rulers.. At that time he was working on his most important book,”Shara Lam-aa”. The book was completed in six months and six days. It is surprising that he completed this monumental work in such a short time since a reading of the book would take two years!  For over 400 years the book is on the curricula of all the Shia Seminaries.
About the martyrdom of Shaheed e Saani there are three different versions. When his learning and acumen received the recognition, the other Ulema, particularly from the other schools, became jealous of him. Therefore they carried tales to the ruler of the day. They told him that he was a risk for the establishment that he was propagating a new creed. It is said that the ruler sent seven men to arrest him. In another version it is said that two persons came to him and said that they were both having some differences and that they wanted him to arbitrate as to who was right and who was wrong. The Shaheed heard both of them and gave his verdict in accordance with the Shariah. The person against whom he gave the verdict went to the Qazi who was the official judge for the entire Syrian Territiory. The Qazi was angered and sent his men to arrest him.Shaheed e Saani heard about this move. To save himself he mounted a camel and started for haj. He thought that he would be safe in Makka. The men of the Qazi searched for him. They asked his neighbors who told them that he had left for the Haj. One of the pursers caught up with him near Makka. Shaheed e Saani told him that he wanted to perform the Haj and after that he would accompany the pursuer wherever he wanted to take him. He performed the pilgrimage and then the person started the journey back to Syria with him. The third version is that the ruler, on getting reports against him, sent his men from Constantinople to arrest him. He had already performed the Haj and was sitting in the Masjad e Haram when the ruler’s men apprehended him. It is said that he was incarcerated at a house in Makka for 40 days. On the way someone said that if he talked the ruler to his way of thinking, the ruler might punish them. Therefore he asked them to kill him on the way. Therefore he was martyred in that wilderness and the severed head was taken to Constantinople. In the court there was a person by name, Sayed Abd ar Rahim Abbasi, who was a follower of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). He was a minister of Interior with the ruler.He told the ruler that the men had transgressed his orders. Instead of bringing the captive alive, they had killed him.On this behavior of the men the minister resigned from the service saying that he wouldn’t bear with their dereliction of duty. The ruler asked him what punishment should be given to the men. The minister asked the men to be handed over to him. He then burnt them alive as Qasas for their act.Another version is that he was killed with the consent of the ruler and his body was thrown in the river.
Nemat Ullah al Jazaeri writes that the body of Shaheed e Saani remained without shroud or grave in the wilderness. Some farmers passed from there in the dark night. They noticed that a ray of bright light was traveling from the sky to the ground. When they reached near, they found a body without head. The light was emanating from the body. They didn’t know who he was but thought that the person must be a man of high piety that his body emitted such bright light. With great respect and veneration they dug a grave and interred his body there.  
Sayed Nemat ullah al Jazaeri writes that when the Shaheed e Saani’s head was severed, wherever his blood fell on the ground, it formed Allah’s name as if someone has written the name in blood. In the narrative it is also recorded that the farmers found a piece of paper suspended in the ray of light that was there. On the paper it was scribbled, “O Allah! Presently I am in the clutches of these tyrants!” On the reverse side of the paper it was found written “If you are My creature, you will remain patient. We shall take revenge!”
After the martyrdom of Shaheed e Saani calamity descended on Constantinople The next day of his killing a severe storm hit the city that such rain had never come to the Istanbul City. Then came flood in the river and half the city was submerged!.


One cannot join the school of Ijtehad unless he has studied the book authored by Shaheed e Saani and Shaheed e Awwal. In the new system that has been adopted by the schools at Qum, the aspirant for admission has to pass through a test on this work of the two great Ulema. Shaheed e Saani has left behind two great legacies for the posterity. One is the book “Shara e Lam-aa” and the other his disciples and his progeny. A hundred years after his demise, eminent scholars rose from his family. There has been a series of Ulema from his sons to grandsons, to great grandsons who were the torchbearers amongst the scholars of their times. Not only his progeny, but his other disciples too have rendered yeoman service to the cause of the Faith. The first person to assume eminence from his progeny was his own son, Sheik Hassan. When Shaheed e Saani was arrested, Sheik Hassan was a small boy of 11 years. His father was martyred. Within a year of that.Shaheed e Saani also had a nephew who was almost of the same age as his cousin Sheik Hassan. After the martyrdom of Shaheed e Saani, these two boys wanted to acquire higher learning in religion. After the demise of Sheik Hassan’s father the school from their place was shifted to Muqdis Ardbeli. In the beginning the two boys pursued their studies on their own. They were bright young boys and they were able to make good progress. They reached a stage of learning where they felt the need of having an instructor for making further progress. The cousins decided that the time had come for them to go to Muqdis Ardbeli, at Najaf e Ashraf, and continue their studies under his tutelage. They arrived at the school of Muqdis Ardbeli when he was in the midst of giving a lesson surrounded by his students. These two young boys sought admittance to Muqdis Ardbeli’s school. He permitted them to join in. They suggested that they would keep the book in front of them and keep reading aloud. Where they had difficulty in comprehension, they would stop and he may explain the part to them. Perhaps, no other students must have made such a suggestion. Muqdis Ardbeli agreed to their suggestion understanding that these two lads were very bright. They started reading the books on the curriculum of the school, one after another, and went reading. At certain points when they had some difficulty of comprehension, Muqdis Ardbeli explained to them. The other students started making fun of the two lads saying that they had a peculiar method of pursuing their studies. But Muqdis Ardbeli stopped them from making such remarks. He told them that the two lads were brilliant and they would soon see books authored by them! The prediction that Muqdis Ardbeli made was proved right very soon. Sheik Hassan wrote a book with the title of”Mu-aalim al Deen”. This book, like his father’s work, has become an important part of the curricula of the seminaries all over the world! The only difference between the works of the father and the son is that, the father wrote on Fiqh and the son on Usool e Fiqh which highlights the methods of Ijtehad and the norms of Ijtehad. For the past 500 years no student acquired the Ilm e Deen without studying the works of the father and the son. While Sheik Hassan’s book attained the status of a ‘best seller’ his cousin too didn’t lag behind. He wrote a book, “Madarij”. It is said about these two cousins that the Shia World is doing their Taqleed even to this day because of their important books. These two cousins were so close that they would go together to the Jumma Mosque for prayers. If one led the prayer, the other would stand behind him in the rows. Both were Mujtahids in their own right! When people asked them to resolve their queries, if one wasn’t able to give a reply, the other would do it! The state of piety of Sheik Hassan was such that he wouldn’t stock provisions for his home even for a week.He had the means to do it, but didn’t want to give an impression to the people that he was affluent! He knew that in his neighborhood there were indigent persons who lived hand to mouth and weren’t able to buy provisions sometimes even for a day! He was very thoughtful that he didn’t want them to see him bringing large quantities of grocery for himself!
These two cousins had such high spirit of piety that they resolved to go for the Ziarats. Mecca was nearer home for them, they also went to Karbala, Najaf and Syria. Now they had to go to Mashad. Those days it was a difficult journey to reach that far away place with many hardships on the way. Beyond Mashad was the Indian territory which was a different world for them in itself.When a person from Lebanon thought of visiting Mashad he would have to consider his plan a hundred times. In the end they resolved that they must go to Mashad and pay their salutations at the mausoleum of Imam Reza (a.s). After facing   hardships on the way, they at last arrived near Mashad. They were traveling for 4 to 6 months and they were now a couple of days’ journey to their destination. At that stage they learnt that Shah Abbas was visiting Mashad and he was in the town those days. Shah Abbas was one of the most benevolent kings. The state of the piety of the cousins was such that they thought that if they visited Mashad they would have to meet the king and he might ask them to do certain things that might be against their concept of piety. Therefore they decided not to go to Mashad for Ziarat. They thought that Ziarat of the Imam was Mustaheb (Optional) and saving oneself from the oppression of a ruler was necessary. They retraced their steps back after reaching so close to their destination! This was the state of the Taqwa of the two cousins that the Imam (a.s) himself met them!
It is a famous incident that Sheik Hassan started for the Haj. One thing was well known about the people of the family of Shaheed e Saani that they were very fond of visiting Makka Mukarrama. He had a great wish to live and die in Mecca.
9 Zil Hijja was getting near.It was a Saturday and Sheik Hassan was at the Mausoleum of Imam Hussain (a.s) in Karbala. He was heading for Mecca. The people said that 9 Zilhijja is a very important day for Karbala and he was going away from there while he had performed Haj many times and he could have as well stayed at Karbala! He said that there were two reasons that compelled him to go for the Haj. The first thing is that he was performing the Haj continuously for many years and wouldn’t like to break that sequence. The second reason was that if someone died on the way to, or during the performance of the Haj, his death will be that of a Shaheed! There is another belief that at the grounds of Arafat, during the Haj, the Imam e Zamana (a.s) will certainly be there.He was going for the Haj regularly every year thinking, perhaps, he would get the opportunity of meeting the Imam (a.s).
When Sheik Hassan, the son of Shaheed e Saani, went for the first time for the Haj, he prayed at the entrance to the Holy Kaaba, that he wished to have the opportunity of meeting the Imam e Zamana (a.s). It is believed that whatever wish a person makes while setting his eyes on the Kaaba for the first time, Allah will fulfil that wish. Sheik Hassan performed all the Arkaan (Rites) of the Haj and reached the grounds of Arafat on 9th Zil Hijja. As is customary he settled down in his tent along with other Hajis. He came out of the tent, sat with other persons and started reicting prayers and supplications. After sometime a person came, greeted him and sat in front of him. The person was certainly looking different from all the Hajis around him. While talking to the person Sheik Hassan said that people believed that the Imam e Zamana (a.s) visited the grounds of Arafat on that day every year. The person said, ‘Yes! You are in front of the Imam (a.s) himself!” Sheik Hassan looked up and found that the person was not there! He asked the other Hajis and they said that they didn’t see anyone else come there and also that Sheik Hassan had abruptly stopped reciting the supplication that he was reciting and sat quietly for some time!
Sheik Hassan died at the age of 52 years and the period of his son, the grandson of Shaheed e Saani, Sheik Mohammed commenced. This is a very felicitous family. For several generations it has been producing Mujtahids.and their disciples too have attained high status. Shaheed e Saani’s contribution to the Shias cannot be quantified. Sheik Mohammed spent all his life in Makka. Here we might mention that Ibn e Hajar Asqalani wrote in 950 H that the land of Makka had become full of Rafizis and Shias.and had become an important center for them. From the times of the Prophet (s.a) the Shias had great reverence for Makka and Madina and they used to visit the places regularly for pilgrimage and Ziarat. You have already read that Shaheed e Saani was arrested by the men of the ruler of Constantinople from Makka. The Turkish ruler used to call himself the caliph and had aims of destroying the Shia realm of Iran. Iran was constantly defeating the Turkish armies in battle. When the Turkish ruler felt helpless, in a vindictive manner, started torturing the Mohibbaan e Ahl e Bayt (a.s) who visited Makka and Madina for pilgrimage. The result of this oppression was that the number of Shias going for the Haj had dwindled very much. On the slightest pretext the men of the Turkish ruler massacred the Shias in Makka and Madina. There was a period of about 1,000 years when people of other sects only visited the two holy sites for pilgrimage but the Shia Ulema permanently resided there and pursued the study of the True Faith. There used to reside a good number of common Shias as well. After the blasphemous act of the Turks arresting Shaheed e Saani from the sanctimonious area of the Masjid e Haram in Makka, a regular campaign of harassing and torturing the Shias and putting animosity against the Shias in the minds of the other inhabitants of the two Holy Cities was started. There is an incident about Allama Majlisi’s mentor, Mulla Mohammed Amin. He was sitting in the Haram of Kaaba reciting prayers when rumours were started that the Kaaba had been defiled. Shouts were raised that inside the Kaaba the dirt of urine had been put. The rumours spread in the entire town of Makka and people came out with their naked swords. The propaganda machine had biased the minds of the people against the Shias to such an extent that for anything negative happening they said it must be the Rafizis who must have done it. They thought that the Shias didn’t come to Makka for Haj or Umra but they came to defile the place by spreading dirt there. From time to time the rulers arranged the cleansing of the Mosque! In such circumstances the Ulema issued Fatwa restraining the Shias from going for the pilgrimage.In fact one of the conditions for the Haj is that one can go for the pilgrimage if the passage to the Holy Places is safe!
It is recorded in the history that the disciples of the disciple of Shaheed e Saani, Mulla Mohammed Amin, Sheik Mohammed Hur al Amili and three other Mujtahids were present together in the Haram of Kaaba when a lumpen mob of men brandishing their swords entered the Haram and martyred the 5 Ulema in the holy precincts where shedding even the blood of a bird is taboo. The innocent blood was flowing on the floor of the Kaaba and the cruel mob didn’t for a moment think that the sanctity of the place was being defiled! It was only Hur al Amili who escaped because of the kindness of a resident of Makka who arranged his departure to Iran from there. A canard was spread in the town that the Rafizis were defiling the Holy Kaaba by spreading urine there and that they must be butchered wherever they were detected! Among the martyrs was also Sheik Zain al Deen Kashani who was a disciple of Shaheed e Saani. He was staying inside the Kaaba for several days and had attracted the respect and attention of the people who came in contact with him.
The time hadn’t come yet when the practice of general massacres came into vogue. In 1039 H a heavy storm and flood hit the city of Makka. The waters of the flood inundated the Masjid al Haram. Makka is surrounded on all sides by hills.and the lowest lying spot there in the valley is Khana e Kaaba. The result during that flood was that the water from all the four hills accumulated there. The water reached the Kaaba in full flow and three walls of the structure collapsed. Only that wall remained intact in which was implanted the Hajr e Aswad. First the water was drained from the place then the plans for the renovation of the structure were discussed. The structure that was renovated then , exists to this day. It is said that Sheik Zain al Deen Kashani was worried that every time the structure was built, or renovated, the followers of the Al e Mohammed (a.s) participated in it. Hazrat Ibrahim (a.s), who was himself a Mohib e Ahl al Bayt, built the Kaaba with his own hands. During the youth of the Prophet (s.a), when the structure was damaged due to heavy floods, he himself repaired it with his own hands. When flood came during the period of Hajaj, The 4TH Imam (a.s) reconstructed the Kaaba with his own hands. Sheik Kashani thought that there wasn’t any representative of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) this time when the structure was to be repaired after the flood. When he slept in the night he dreamed that the body of Imam Hussain (a.s) was brought to Kaaba and put in front of it. All the Infallibles (a.s) were present there and leading them was the Prophet (s.a) himself. He (s.a) pointed towards Sheik Kashani, after the group offered the prayer there, and said, “Lift the body and bury it inside the Kaaba!” At that moment his eyes opened from the sleep. He was worrying as to the meaning of the dream. A dream cannot be false when one sees the Infallibles (a.s) in it. After sometime his mind helped him to the solution. He thought that it was the duty of the 4th Imam (a.s) to do the duty of interring his father but the Prophet (s.a) was asking him (Kashani) to do the duty. He thought, perhaps, it was an indication that the Prophet (s.a) wished him to do the duty of participating in the reconstruction of the walls of the Khana e Kaaba. After some days the water was fully drained from the Mosque and it was first decided to build only the three walls that had collapsed. By chance, the person who was given charge of the work was a disciple of Sheik Kashani. When the person saw him coming, arranged the breaking of the three collapsed walls completely, under the Sheik’s supervision, and then came the time to commence raisng the walls afresh. It was night time when this work started. Sheik Kashani was worried that there was the Sheriff of Makka and other functionaries who would come to inaugurate the work. He thought that the Prophet (s.a) had ordered him to do the job. Late in the night he did ablution and stood up for the Namaz e Shab. After the prayer he moved towards the Haram to see what was being done there.When he reached there, he learnt that the time to commence the work had arrived. At that time neither the governor of Makka nor the Sheriff of Makka was there. No functionary of the State was there. When the workers there saw this venerable person, who had earned the respect of the citizens of Makka for his piety, arriving, they rushed towards him and asked him to recite the Surat al Fateha and also to recite the suppliocation that was recited when any important job was commenced those days. This long supplication has been recorded by Allama Kulaini in Usoole Kaafi. It was to be announced that the first brick was being laid on behalf of the Sultan. He was worried how he could say such a thing about the confirmed tyrant who ruled the Realm those days. Most unwillingly he had to do that. On his tongue there was the name of the Sultan but in his heart was the Sultan e Kaa-e-naat, the true Sultan! His thoughts were focused on the Imam e Zamana (a.s) when he fixed the first brick of the walls! It was the year 1040 H when the three walls of the Kaaba were rebuilt!
Till today, 1404 H, the walls built at that time hold good. This is the felicity of Shaheed e Saani that the construction of the three walls was inaugurated and supervised by his disciple Sheik Kashani, who was so much venerated by the people of Makka that they chose to entrust this important task to him. But when the storm of hatred generated by the Ottoman ruler of Turkey came to Makka, Sheik Kashani was one of the Mujtahids who were martyred. The people of Makka remained silent spectators. Thus came about the Fatwa of the eminent Mujtaheds that people should go for the pilgrimage only if they were sure of safe passage!
After the death of Shaheed e Saani’s son, Sheik Hassan, the leadership of he Shias rightly transferred to his son Sheik Mohammed. No sooner this happened Sheik Mohammed had to spend long years in self imposed exile.He spent a very peripatetic life, moving from place to place. The conditions were such that even when Sheik Mohammed offered prayer inside the Mausoleum of Imam Hussain (a.s) the men of the rulers barged in to search for him.They sent in an arrow to pierce his heart in the midst of the prayer. But it is a miracle that it missed the mark and fell away from him. Sheik Mohammed’s excellent nature and erudition impressed people and even a governor of several provinces endorsed his greatness. People say that for three days after his demise, there was a continuous flow of visitors to pay their last respects to the departed worthy. There was a continuous chant of the recitation of the Holy Quran near his mortal remains. It is said that from his grave too were emanating the sounds of the recitation of the Quran.
As mentioned he was living a peripatetic life, shifting from one place to another.. For sometime he was in Lebanon, then he was in Najaf and then in Syria. During his last days he was residing in Makka Mukarrama. He was moving from place to place to save himself from the machinations of his enemies and ultimately came to Makka to find safety. When he demised, he was interred near Hazrat Khadija (a.s), which itself is very felicitous. While he was residing in Makka he was relaxing at home one day and was conversing with his spouse. He told her that he was remembering the roses that were his favorite flowers. He said that roses used to bloom infront of his ancestral home. The wife said that he was remembering roses when it wasn’t the blooming season nor do they grow in the desert of Arabia. This was one of the topics of discussion that came up between man and wife. It was evening time, he stirred out and did the circumambulation of the Kaaba.While he was still in the process of the circumambulation, a youth, dressed in very good apparel, came forward carrying a bouquet of flowers in his hands. He proferred the bouquet and said, “This is for you!” He was surprised how and from where the youth brought a bouquet of such fresh flowers. He asked the youth, “From where you brought these flowers?” The youth just said, “These are for you and I have brought them from Kharabad!” Saying this the youth disappeared in the crowds. Hearing this, he remembered neither the flowers nor the bouquet. He frantically started searching for the youth. Kharabad is a legendary place in the Island of Khizra, in the White Sea where, it is believed, resides the Imam e Zamana (a.s). He thought that certainly it was the Imam e Zamana (a.s) who had brought the flowers for him. One may understand the state of Taqwa of this grandson of Shaheed e Saani that the Imam e Zamana (a.s) himself chose to bring for him the flowers that he talked of a few hours ago.This was a person who turned down proposals of rulers to attend their courts which would have brought him riches and worldly privilege.
When Sheik Mohammed resided in Karbala, Iraq, he heard that there was a person who wasn’t taking out the zakat from his earnings.He couldn’t ask anyone to reveal his identity as it would have become Ghaibat. From that day on, whatever provisions or materials came to his house, he took out a quantity from that as the Zakat of that unknown person.For the period of 2 or 3 years.that he lived in Karbala, this was his practice.His thought was that perhaps the things that were coming to his house came from that person.Generally persons who have to legitimately take out Khums and Zakat from their earnings, avoid it. Here was a person who was taking out the Zakat for someone not even known to him! The governor of Makka, hearing of this, became a friend and admirer of Sheik Mohammed. The governor, although a functionary of the Ottoman rulers, changed his attitude and started taking out Khums and Zakat from his earnings. Once he sent 500 coins, current those days, with a slave as gift to Sheik Mohammed. He sent a letter along with the coins saying that he would be very happy if the gift was accepted. He also wrote that the money was Halal (legitimate) because neither Khums nor Zakat was pending due on the amount. Sheik Mohammed read the letter. If it was a gift from any ordinary Momin, he might have accepted the gift. But the gift was from the representatives of the repressive rulers. He asked the messenger to take the money back. The man said that this act might break the heart of his master. The messenger also said that there were many followers of the Right Path in Makka. If the governor felt offended for returning his gift, he might start troubling them in his ire! Sheik Mohammed told to the messenger, “Keep these 500 coins with you. Every year take out 100 coins and buy a gift and give to the governor on his behalf without telling him that his gift wasn’t accepted by Sheik Mohammed.
This was the state of the Taqwa of Sheik Mohammed.  When he demised, the Imam (a.s) sat near his head and recited the Holy Quran.  Sheik Mohammed had once again to pass through a trying test. The governor expressed a wish that he must pay a visit to the court.He refused to oblige. He sent gifts that were refused. In the end the governor wrote a letter and angrily said that he was turning down all the requests, atleast he can acknowledge and reply to his letter! Sheik Mohammed’s predicament was that if he wrote a reply he would have to address the governor with an appellation as Sallam Allah Taala (May Allah keep him in peace), Mudda Zalla (May Allah keep his shadow over us). Sheik Mohammed very cleverly overcame the problem. In his reply he wrote the appellation Hadaah Allah (May Allah Guide him). This prayer can be offered even for the worst oppressor.
Our eminent Ulema usually avoided meeting the rulers. When Sheik Mohammed got the information that the Sultan himself was coming to meet him, he prayed to Allah not to make him a courtier of the tyrant. He prayed that he should die before the Sultan arrived in Makka. After some time he came out of the house and told the people that on the third day they will be offering the funeral prayer for him. On that day the entire population of Makka saw that the body of Sheik Mohammed was ready for burial. From the side of its head the sound of the recitation of the Holy Quran was coming. It is miraculous that Sheik Mohammed wished for death and Allah sent it to him on the day he wanted it!


Source Urdu Lectures of Moulana Sadiq Hassan Book