QUESTION / ANSWERS

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Paper # 1
ISLAMIC LAWS ACCORDING TO THE FATAWA OF AYATULLAH AL UZAMA SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU 

1069. It is necessary that there should be nothing between the forehead of the person offering prayers, & the thing on which he offers Sajdah. If the mohr (sajdagah) is so dirty that the forehead does not reach the mohr itself, the Sajdah is void. But if only the colour of mohr has changed, there is no harm.

1476. The follower should not say Takbiratul ehram before the Imam. As an obligatory precaution, he should not say the takbir until the takbir of the Imam is completed.

1478. If a follower recites other parts of prayers other than Takbiratul ehram before the Imam, there is no objection. But, if he hears them being recited by the Imam, or if he knows when Imam is going to recite them, the recommended precaution is that he should not recite them before the Imam.

1479. It is necessary for the follower that, besides that which is recited in the prayers, he should perform all acts like Ruku & Sajdah with the Imam or a little after him, & if he performs them before the Imam, or after a considerable delay, intentionally, his congregational prayers becomes void. However, if he converts to Furada, his prayers will be in order.

Paper # 2
Answers to the Questions asked obtained from
 Islamic Laws Book of Ayatullah al-Uzama Sayyid Ali al-Husaini Al-Seestani Dama Dhilluhu

Q) Please, explain to me what is “Istibra” & whether this act is Wajib or Mustahab?

A) Istibra is a recommended act for men after urinating. Its object is to ensure that no more urine is left in the urethra. There are certain ways of performing Istibra, & the best of them is that after the passing of urine, if the anus also becomes najis it is made Pak first.
Thereafter, the part between the anus & the root of penis should be pressed thrice, with the middle finger of the left hand. Then the thumb is placed on the penis, & the forefinger below it pressing three times up to the point of circumcision, then the front part of the penis should be jerked three times.

Q) Sometimes a man notices a sort of discharge during courtship with his wife. Please explain whether these discharges are Najis or Pak?

A) The moisture which is discharged by man during wooing & courtship, is called 'Mazi'. It is Pak, & so is the liquid which is seen after ejaculation. It is called 'Wazi'. Similarly, the liquid which at times comes out after urine, is called 'Wadi' & it is Pak if urine has not reached it. If a person performs Istibra after urinating, & then discharges liquid doubting whether it is urine, or one of the above mentioned three liquids, that liquid is Pak.

Q) Can Urinary Organ be made Pak by any other way other than the use of water?

A) The urinary organ cannot be made Pak without water. If one uses kurr or running water, then washing the organ once will suffice, after removal of essential najasat. But, if one uses under-kurr water, then recommended precaution is to wash it twice , better still, three times.

Paper # 3
Answers to the Questions asked obtained from
Islamic Laws Book of Ayatullah al-Uzama Sayyid Ali al-Husaini Al-Seestani Dama Dhilluhu

Q) Kindly explain to me in details ways of proving Najasat.

A) (1) One should be certain, or satisfied that something is najis. If one suspects that something may be najis, it is not necessary to avoid it.

(2) If a reliable person who possesses, controls or manages a thing, says that it is najis. For example, if the wife, or a servant, or a maid says that a particular utensil or any other object which she handles, is najis, it will be accepted as najis.

(3) If two just persons testify that a certain thing is najis, provided that their testimony deals with the reason for najasat.

Q) Before performing Wudhu if one thinks that there is dirt in the corners of his eyes which could prevent water from reaching the skin, is he required to remove such an impediment?

A) If a person suspects that there is dirt or something else in the eyebrows, & corners of his eyes, & on his lips, which does not permit water to reach them, & if that suspicion is reasonable, he should examine it before performing Wudhu, & remove any such thing if it is there.

Q) Is it necessary that the water in Wudhu must reach the skin on the face if he wears beard?
A) If the skin of the face is visible from under the hair, one should make the water reach the skin, but if it is not visible, it is sufficient to wash the hair, & it is not necessary to make the water reach beneath the hair.

Paper # 4
Answer to the Question asked obtained from
Islamic Laws Book of AyatullahAl-Uzama Sayyid Ali Al-Husaini Al-Seestani Dama Dhilluhu

Q) What is the ruling for a disabled person who offers prayers while remaining seated on the chair. Is it correct that such a person joining Namaz must in the beginning stand till Ruku of the 1st Rakaat & then perform all the actions while seated up to the end bowing wherever possible. Is it right for this person to lift the sajdagah & place it in the forehead while reciting the Dhikr of sujood or just bows more without sajdagah touching the forehead ? ( Sajdagah is on the small table infront of the Musalli all the time )

A) Your question is general which requires a detailed reply as it would apply individually according to his incapacitated position. 

In short if he is unable to stand while praying, he should sit down, & if he is unable to sit, he should lie down.  As long as a person is able to offer prayers standing, he should not sit down. For example, if the body of a person shakes, or moves when he stands, or he is obliged to lean on something, or to incline his body a bit, he should continue to offer prayers standing in whatever manner he can. But, if he cannot stand at all, he should sit upright, & offer prayers in that position.  As long as he can sit, he should not offer prayers in a lying posture, & if he cannot sit straight, he should sit in any manner he can. & if he cannot sit at all, he should lie on his right side.  If he also cannot lie on the left side then he should lie on his back with his feet facing Qibla.

For example, as your question implies, a person is praying seated on a chair with a table in front of him on which is laid Mor (Sijdagah).  As long as he is able to stand up he should do so & recite Takbiratul Ihram in a standing position & if he can continue standing up to recite the Qir’at he should continue to do so & perform Ruku & then sit down to perform Sajdah.  If he cannot continue standing up he should sit down after reciting Takbiratul Ihram & perform Ruku in a sitting position.  If he cannot stand up & recite Takbiratul Ihram then only he should recite Takbiratul Ihram in a sitting position.  If he is offering prayers in a sitting position, & after reciting Hamd & Surah, he is able to stand up & perform Ruku, he should first stand up, & then perform Ruku.  But if he cannot do so, he should perform Ruku while sitting. 

If a person cannot bow down for Ruku properly, he should lean on something & perform Ruku. & if he cannot perform Ruku even after he has leaned, he should bow down to the maximum extent he can, so that it could be customarily recognized as a Ruku. & if he cannot bend at all, he should make a sign for Ruku with his head.

If a person is supposed to make a sign with his head for Ruku is unable to do so, he should close his eyes with the niyyat of Ruku, & then recite Zikr. & for rising from Ruku, he should open his eyes. & if he is unable to do even that, he should, as a precaution, make a niyyat of Ruku in his mind, & then make a sign of Ruku with his hands & recite Zikr.

If a person cannot perform Ruku while standing, but can bend for it while sitting, he should offer prayers standing & should make a sign with his head for Ruku. & the recommended precaution is that he should offer another prayer in which he would sit down at the time of Ruku, & bow down for it.

If a person cannot find something high on which he may place the mohr, or any other allowable thing, & if he cannot find any person who would raise the mohr etc. for him, then as precaution, he should raise it with his h& & do Sajdah on it.

(As regards to raising the mohr with his h& & do Sajdah on it, Hujjatul Islam Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi has commented: The basis of your answer is correct; however, when I compared the statement in the Tawzihul Masa'il with what the Sayyid has written in Minhajus Salihiyn (which I consider to be more updated & comprehensive), it seems that the emphasis in the Minhaj is doing it by ishara rather than bring the muhr by h& to the forehead. In any case, the issue of bringing the muhr to the forehead is based on ihtiyat istihbabi, & not ihtiyat wujubi; and, therefore, I would go with the sajda by ishara as the first choice.)

If a person cannot perform Sajdah at all, he should make a sign for it with his head, & if he cannot do even that, he should make a sign with his eyes. & if he cannot make a sign even with his eyes he should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, make a sign for Sajdah with his hands etc. & should make a niyyat for Sajdah in his mind, & recite the obligatory Zikr.

Paper # 5
Ayatullah Al- Answers to Questions asked obtained from Islamic Laws Book of 
Uzama Sayyid Ali Al-Husaini Al-Seestani Dama Dhilluhu

Q) In Wudhu, while washing the face is washing of beard sufficient or is one required to ensure that the water reaches the skin under the beard?

A) If the skin of the face is visible from under the hair, one should make the water reach the skin, but if it is not visible, it is sufficient to wash the hair, & it is not necessary to make the water reach beneath the hair.  In case if he doubts whether his skin is visible from the under the hair of the face or not, he should, as an obligatory precaution, wash his hair, & also make the water reach the skin.

Q) As I understand, washing the face & the hands in Wudhu once is obligatory & to wash them twice is recommended.  But I cannot understand as to which washing should be considered first or second if I decide to pour water on my face & hands a number of times?

A) While performing Wudhu, it is obligatory to wash the face & the hands once, & it is recommended to wash them twice.  Washing them three or more times is Haraam.  As regards to which washing should be treated as the first, it will depend upon washing the face & the hands thoroughly, leaving no room for precaution, with the Niyyat of Wudhu.  So, if he pours water on his face ten times with the intention of the first washing, there is no harm, but when he will then wash with the Niyyat of Wudhu, it will be called the first time.  Thus, he can go on pouring water on his face several times, & in the final wash, make the Niyyat of Wudhu.  But if he follows this procedure, then the face & the hands should be washed once only, as an obligatory precaution.

Q) In the course of performing Masa’ (wiping) in Wudhu, is it necessary that my head & feet are in a stationery position when doing so?

A) While wiping one’s head & feet, it is necessary to move one’s h& on them, & if the head & feet are moved leaving the h& stationary, Wudhu would be void.  However, there is no harm if the head & feet move slightly, while the h& is being moved for wiping. 

Q) While wiping the feet in Wudhu, is it sufficient to place the whole h& on the foot & pull a little?

A) As a precaution, at the time of wiping the foot, one should place one’s h& on the toes & then draw it to the joint.  Simply placing the whole h& on the foot, & pulling it a little is not sufficient.

Paper # 6 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF
AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA

SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU (unless otherwise indicated)

Q) If a very negligible small drop of blood falls in the food while cooking, since the food is being heated, will the entire food be considered Najis?

A) Even a small particle of blood falling in the food, while it is being boiled, will make the entire food together with its container najis, as per obligatory precaution, & boiling, heat, or fire does not make it Pak.

Q) Is it Wajib to wash the inner parts of the nose, lips & eyes in Wudhu?

A) While performing Wudhu, it is not obligatory that one should wash the inner parts of the nose, nor of the lips & eyes which cannot be seen when they close. However, in order to ensure that all parts have been washed, it is obligatory that some portion of these parts (i.e. inner parts of nose, lips & eyes) are also included.

Q) During Wudhu, can “Masa” (wiping) be done on the parts of wiping which is wet?

A) The parts of wiping should be dry, & if they are so wet that the wetness of the palm of the h& has no effect on them, the wiping will be void. However, there is no harm if the wetness on those parts is so insignificant, that the moisture of the palm overcomes it.

Q) What are the conditions for the validity of Wudhu?

A) The following are the conditions for a correct Wudhu:

(1)   The water should be Pak, & clean, not sullied with dirt, even if that dirt is Pak. 
(2)
   The water should be pure, & not mixed.   
(3)
   The water should be Mubah (permissible for use).
(4)
   The container of the water, used by the person concerned for Wudhu, should be Mubah (permissible for use by him). 
(5)
   As an obligatory precaution, the container of the water used for Wudhu should not be made of gold or silver.  
(6)
   The body on which Wudhu is performed, should be Pak, at the time of washing & wiping.    
(7)
   The person doing Wudhu should have sufficient time at his disposal for Wudhu & namaz.
(8)   One should perform Wudhu with the niyyat of Qurbat i.e. to obey the orders of Allah. If, a person performs Wudhu, for the purpose of cooling himself or for some other purpose, the Wudhu would be void.  
(9)
   Wudhu should be performed in the prescribed sequence, that is, he should first wash his face, then his right h& & then his left hand, & thereafter, he should wipe his head & then the feet. As a recommended precaut ion, he should not wipe both the feet together. He should wipe the right foot first & then the left.
(10)
  The acts of Wudhu should be done one after the other, without time gap in between.
(11)  A person doing Wudhu should wash his hands & face & wipe his head & feet himself. Hence, if another person makes him perform Wudhu, or helps him in pouring water over his face, or hands, or in wiping his head, or feet, his Wudhu is void.
(12)
  There should be no constraint for using water.
(13)
    There should be no impediment in the way of water reaching the parts of Wudhu.

Paper # 7
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Congregational Prayers Q] Is a follower required to recite Surah A-Hamd & another Surah in the first & second Rak’at of Zuhr & Asr prayers as the Imam recites these Surahs silently?

A.] The follower should not recite Surah al-Hamd & Surah in the first & second Rak'ats of Zuhr & Asr prayers & it is Mustahab that instead of them he should recite Zikr.  It is necessary for the follower to recite all the things of the prayers himself, except Surah al-Hamd & the other Surah. However, if his first or second Rak'at coincides with third or fourth Rak'at of the Imam, he should recite Surah al-Hamd & Surah.

Q.] Can a follower say Takbiratul Ehram before the Imam has completed his Takbiratul Ehram?

A.]The follower should not say Takbiratul Ehram before the Imam.  As an obligatory precaution, he should not say the takbir until the takbir of the Imam is completed.

Q.] Besides Takbiratul Ehram, is a follower also required to recite other parts of prayers after the Imam?

A.] If a follower recites other parts of prayers other than Takbiratul Ehram before the Imam, there is no objection. But, if he hears them being recited by the Imam, or if he knows when Imam is going to recite them, the recommended precaution is that he should not recite them before the Imam.

Paper # 8
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Q.] If a follower inadvertently says Salaam & completes his prayer before the Imam does it, what should he do?

A.] If the follower says the Salam by mistake, before the Imam does it, his prayer is in order, & it is not necessary that he should say Salam again along with the Imam. & even if he says Salam before the Imam intentionally, there is no objection.  

Q.] Can a follower go to Rukuu or Sajdah before the Imam has done so?

A.] It is necessary for the follower that, besides that which is recited in the prayers, he should perform all acts like Ruku & Sajdah with the Imam or a little after him, & if he performs them before the Imam, or after a considerable delay, intentionally, his congregational prayers becomes void. However, if he converts to Furada, his prayers will be in order.

Q.] If a follower goes to Ruku by mistake when the Imam is still reciting Qir’at (Surah), what is he required to do to maintain validity of his congregational prayer?

A.] If a follower goes to Ruku before the Imam by mistake, & realizes that if he raises his head, he may reach some part of the Qir'at (surah) of the Imam, & if he does so, then goes to Ruku again with the Imam, his prayers are in order. & if he does not return intentionally, his prayers are void.

*Q] If a follower raises his head from Ruku ahead of the Imam by mistake, what is he required to do to correct the situation?

A.] If a follower raises his head from Ruku before the Imam by mistake, & if the Imam is still in Ruku, he (the follower) should return to Ruku, & then raise his head with the Imam. In this case, the extra Ruku, which is a Rukn, will not invalidate the prayers. However, if Imam raises his head before the follower reaches him, as a precaution, the prayer of the follower will be void.

PAPER # 9
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Congregational Prayers
Q.] If a follower raises his head from Sajdah before the Imam unintentionally, what should he do correct the situation?

A.] If a follower raises his head by mistake, & sees that the Imam is in Sajdah, as a precaution, he should return to Sajdah, & if it happens in both the Sajdah, the prayers will not be void, although a Rukn has been added.

Q.] If a follower raises his head from Ruku or Sajdah before the Imam by mistake & realizes that if he goes back to Ruku or Sajdah he will not be in time to reach the Imam, what is he required to do?

A.]  If a follower raises his head from Ruku or Sajdah before Imam by mistake, & does not return to Ruku or Sajdah forgetfully, or thinking that he will not reach the Imam, his congregational prayer is in order.

Q.] How should a follower react to maintain validity of his congregational prayers in a situation when the Imam mistakenly recites Qunut or Tashahhud in the Rak’at which does not have Qunut or Tashahhud?

A.] If Imam mistakenly recites Qunut in a Rak'at which does not have Qunut, or recites Tashahhud in a Rak'at which does not have Tashahhud, the follower should not recite Qunut or Tashahhud. But, he cannot go to Ruku before the Imam or rise before the Imam rises. In fact, he should wait till the Qunut or Tashahhud of Imam ends, & offer the remaining prayers with him.

Q.] How loudly can a ma’mum [follower behind an imam in Jama’ah] recite in prayers?

A.] Obviously, a ma’mum cannot recite Al-Fatiha & the Sura in Jama’ah. Subhaniyyat, i.e. Tasbihat Arba’aa in third & fourth rak’ah are silently recited by the Imam & ma’mum. That leaves the adhkaar: in qunoot, rukuu, sujood, tashahhud & tasleem. These must not be recited so loud as to reach the Imam’s ears for that constitutes karaha, but does not invalidate Salaat. (ANSWERED BY SHEIKH FADHEL AL-SAHLANI THE UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE OF AYATULLAH AL-UDHMA AL-HAAJ AL-SAYYID ALI HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI)

PAPER # 10
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Congregational Prayers
Q.] For the validity of a congregational prayer, it is a condition that there should be no obstruction between the Imam & the follower, nor between one follower & the other follower, who is a link between him & the Imam. Is any such obstruction caused if a “na-baligh” child prays in the first line?

1426 A.] If a discerning child (Mumayyaz), one who is able to distinguish good from evil, stands between two persons in one line, thus causing a distance, their prayers in congregation will be valid as long as they do not have knowledge about that child’s Namaz having become void.

Q.] If the Imam has completed his Takbiratul Ihram, can the persons in the back row say their Takbir before the persons in the front row have said their Takbir?

1427 A.] If after the Takbir of the Imam, the persons in the front row are ready for prayers & are about to say Takbir, a person standing in the back row can say Takbir.  However, the recommended precaution is that he should wait, till the Takbir of the front row has been pronounced.

Q.] What is a person required to do to keep his congregational prayer valid if he joins the Imam in Ruku but as he does so the Imam raises his head from his Ruku?

1438 A.] If a person joins the Imam when he is in Ruku, but before he bows to Ruku, the Imam raises his head from his Ruku, that person has a choice either to complete his prayers as Furada, or to continue with the Imam upto Sajdah, with the Niyyah of Qurbat.  Then when he stands, he can do Takbir other than Takbiratul Ihram, as a general Zikr, & continue with the congregation.

Q.] Can a traveler who offers shortened prayers join the Congregational Prayer led by an Imam who offers full prayers?

A.] It is Makrooh for a traveler, who offers Zuhr, Asr & Isha prayers in shortened form (two Rak’ats), to follow a person who is not a traveler.  & it is Makrooh for a person who is not a traveler to follow a traveler in those prayers.

PAPER # 11
QUESTIONS ANSWERED BY SHEIKH FADHEL AL-SAHLANI THE UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE
OF
AYATULLAH AL-UDHMA AL-HAAJ AL-SAYYID ALI HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI

PRAYERS The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) said: " At the (appointed) time of every prayer (Salaat), I hear a caller who calls & says:
'O children of Adam! keep up prayers in order to
extinguish the fire you have lit against yourselves (by committing sins)."
 Mustadrak-ul-Wasail, vol.3, p.102

FRIDAY PRAYERS Q. Please, advise whether presence of female congregants would make up the requisite number of persons necessary for the Friday Prayer to be established. 

A. It is allowed to calculate males & females to reach the minimum number which is 5 [including the male Imam] to perform Salaatul Jumu’ah. 

Q.     How long can Salaatul Jumu’ah be delayed for?

A. Salaatul Jumu’ah cannot be delayed per se.  However, if it is established later than the actual time, the delay period will depend upon ‘urf.  That is to say, customarily the community decides what constitutes delay.

Q.     During Salaatul Jumu’ah, is it permissible to establish Salaatul Dhuhrayn simultaneously, either individually or in congregation?

A. On Fridays, Salaatul Jumu’ah & Salaatul Dhuhrayn are optional obligatory.  So, if Salaatul Jumu’ah with all its required conditions is established, then one has to join in & cannot pray Dhuhrayn simultaneously.    

PAPER # 12
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

At the last moments of his life, Imam Sadiq [a] called his relations & companions & told them: 
"Verily, our intercession never reaches the one who takes prayers  lightly
”.  "Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 82, p. 236

Q.]   If a person arrives late & finds that the Imam is reciting the last Tashahhud, is there anyway that he can join the  congregational prayers so that he can earn “Thawab” of congregational prayers?

A.]  Yes.  He should sit down after making Niyyah & pronouncing Takbiratul Ehram, & may recite Tashahhud with the Imam, but not the Salaam, & then wait till the Imam says Salaam of the prayers.  Then he should stand, & without making Niyyah & Takbir, begin to recite Surah al-Hamd & the other Surah treating it as the first Rak’at of his prayers.

Q.]   When there is only one follower in the congregational prayers, where should he position himself?

A.]  If there is only one male follower, he may stand in line with Imam.

Q.]   If a person arrives late & the Imam is in the third or fourth Rak’at in the state of Qiyam, can he join the congregational prayers then or should he wait until the Imam is in Ruku?

A.] If the Imam is in the third or fourth Rak’at, & one knows that if he joins him & recite Surah al-Hamd he will not be able to  reach him in Ruku, as an obligatory precaution, he should wait till the Imam goes to Ruku & then join.

Q] If a person arrives late & finds that the Imam is in the state Qiyam but he is not aware in which Rak’at the Imam is, how should he go about to join the congregational prayer?

A.] If the Imam is standing, & the follower does not know in which Rak’at he is, he can join him, but he should recite Surah al-Hamd & the other Surah with the Niyyat of Qurbat though he may come to know later that the Imam was in the first or second Rak’at.

PAPER # 13
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

The Holy Prophet [s] said:  "The one who takes prayer lightly is not of me.  No, by Allah such a person
 will not reach the Haud, Pond of abundant."
Man La Yahduruhul Faqih, vol. 1, p. 206

Q) If a person is sure that he has performed Wudhu, & has also committed an act which invalidates Wudhu, but does not  remember which happened first, can he pray without performing a fresh Wudhu?

A) He should act as follows:
(1)
   If this situation arises before his Namaz, he should perform Wudhu.
(2)
   If it arises during Namaz, he should break it & perform Wudhu.
(3)
   If it arises after Namaz, that Namaz will be valid, but for the next prayers he should perform Wudhu.

Q) If a person doubts after Namaz, whether he performed Wudhu or not, is he required to pray again?  & if such a doubt occurs during Namaz, what is he required to do? 

A) If the doubt is after Namaz, his prayers offered by him would be in order.  But for the next prayers, he should perform Wudhu.  In the case of the doubt during Namaz, his prayers is void & he should perform Wudhu & then pray.

Q) Is it permitted to touch the Names of Allah, the Holy Qur’an , & the names of the Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.w.), the Imams (AS) or Fatema Zahra (AS) without Wudhu?

A) It is Haraam, as an obligatory precaution, to touch the Names of Allah or His Special Attributes without Wudhu, in whichever language they may have been written. The same is true for the Holy Qur’an.  However, there is no harm in touching the translation of the Holy Qur’an, in any language, without Wudhu.  As for the names of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) the Imams (AS) & Janabe Fatema Zahra (AS) it is better not to touch their names without Wudhu.

PAPER # 14
GLOSSARY ISLAMIC TERMINOLOGY OF INGREDIENTS

There are several degrees of suspicion in Figh:

1) Wahm (Delusion): That is when you are approximately 25% sure of something but 75% sure that it is not so.
Wahm has no weight in Islam & no judgment can be based on it.
 
2) Shak (Doubt): When you are approx. 50% sure of something & 50% sure it is not so.
Shak is disregarded in Islam.
 
3) Dhan (Most likely/probable): When you are more sure that something is true but less sure that it is not so.
Say 70% sure but 30% not sure. Dhan is regarded as a basis of a judgment.
 
4) Itminan (Sureness): When you are so sure of something that you are confident it is true.
However, there is a small chance it is not true. Itminan is a solid basis for a judgment.
 
5) Yaqeen (Certainty): When you are 100% sure of something.
Yaqeen is an indisputable basis for judgment.

Based on the above, if you have shak or wahm [about the presence of an ingredient], then you do not have to read the ingredients & if you did then it is unnecessary investigation. However, if you have dhan then you should read the ingredients. But if you have Itminan or yaqeen, then it is haram for you to eat the product unless you read the ingredients & you find out that it does not contain any haram ingredients.

PAPER # 15
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU (unless otherwise indicated)

 The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) said: "Say each of your prayer as if it were your last prayer". (Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol.69, p.408)

Q.]  If a person prays wearing dress which has been purchased with the money whose Khums has not been paid, is his prayers valid?

A.] If a person purchases a dress with the particular sum of money whose Khums has not been paid by him, then Namaz in that dress will amount to the Namaz in a dress which has been usurped.

Q]  Is the validity of Namaz adversely affected if a person prays wearing a Najis pair of socks or cap?

A] If small dresses belonging to a person offering prayers, like his socks or scalp cap, which would not ordinarily cover his private parts,  become Najis,  & if they are not made of the parts of a carcass or an animal whose meat is Haraam to eat, the prayers offered with them will be in order.  & there is also no objection if one offers prayers with a Najis ring.

Q]   Is it permissible to recite Adhan in a melodious tune?

A] If Adhan is recited in a melodious tune, rendering it musical, that is, like the way singers sing to entertain the people, it is Haraam.  If it does not become musical, it is Makrooh.

Q]   Is it recommended to follow reciting Adhan when one hears it?

A] It is Mustahab that when a person hears Adhan, he follows by uttering together in a low voice whatever he hears.

PAPER # 16
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS. CONTEMPORARY LEAGEL RULINGS IN SHI'I LAW IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RULING
(FATAWA) OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU

Hadhrat Fatimat-uz-Zahra (AS) said: "The best of you is the one whose treatment (with people) is the most moderate (& affectionate), & the worthiest of them are those who behave graciously (& honorably) with their wives.  Dalail-ul-Imamah

IMPORTED LEATHER Q27: A man is wearing a watch whose strap is made of natural leather imported from a non-Muslim country & he does not know whether the leather is from the skin of an animal slaughtered in the Islamic manner or not. The belt on his pants is made from the same kind of leather. Does he have to remove them when he intends to offer prayer?

A: His prayer is valid with them as long as there is a strong probability that the strap or the belt is from the skin of an animal whose flesh is edible & that was slaughtered in the shar'i manner. (FM, pp. 397-98)

Q28: What about a wallet placed inside the pocket during prayer if it is made of the same leather as the strap previously mentioned?

A: One is permitted to offer prayer with it. (FM, p. 398)

Q29: Suppose that he is confident that the strap or the belt is made from the skin of an animal that was not slaughtered in the Islamic manner but he prays with it due to forgetfulness & then remembers while praying, & immediately removes his watch or belt.

A: His prayer is valid unless his forgetfulness is due to carelessness & not giving due importance to the matter [in which case he is obliged to repeat his prayer]. (FM, p. 398)

PAPER # 17
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS. CONTEMPORARY LEAGEL RULINGS IN SHI'I LAW IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RULING
(FATAWA) OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU

Worldly Possessions & Greedily Compiling Wealth The Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w.) said: The destruction of my female followers is in two things: gold & immodest clothes; & the destruction of my male followers lies in abandoning knowledge & compiling wealth.

Organ Donation Q131: Is it permissible to donate the eye or kidney of a living human being for another?
A: It is not permissible to donate the eye. As for donating a kidney, for one who has another healthy one, it is permissible. (FM, p. 415)

Q132: Some people stipulate in their will that some organs of their body may be removed after death for the purpose of transplantation in the body of another human being in need of them. Is this kind of will correct, & is it permissible to excise those parts (of the body) in such a case?

A: [Certainly not. It is not correct & is not permissible] if the testator is a Muslim, except if the life of another Muslim depends on this, then it is permissible even if the donor has not made such a will. But [the diyah will be obligatory on the one who does the excision] except where it is done according to a will, in which case there is no diyah on him. (FM, pp. 415-16)

Abortion Q140: It is easy to abort the foetus in the early phase of pregnancy. Does the mother have a right to abort it?

A: Certainly not, this is not permissible except if she is harmed by the presence of the foetus in her womb, or if its presence causes her difficulty to a degree that is not normally tolerable. (FM, p. 430) (next week - a couple of more questions & answers on “abortion”)

PAPER # 18
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS. CONTEMPORARY LEAGEL RULINGS IN SHI'I LAW IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RULING
(FATAWA) OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU

This Transitory World, Its Attractiveness & Poison The Holy Prophet Muhammad (saww) said: At the moment when the coffin of a person is being lifted & carried, the concerning soul follows its corpse & regretfully calls: O’ you my children & my relatives! Beware that the world does not cheat you as it did to me. I gathered wealth regardless of it being lawful or unlawful & left all of it for others. Now I am left with the burden upon me while they enjoy the fruit of it; therefore, avoid that which is similar to what happened to me.

Q141: In recent times, due to modern scientific instruments, it has become possible to know the situation of the foetus, whether it is suffering from any physical deformity or not. If the foetus is confirmed scientifically as being deformed & afflicted with maladies or a malady, is it permissible to abort it?

A: Deformity of the foetus in itself is no justification for aborting it. Yes, if its presence in the mother's womb is harmful to her health or causes her difficulty to an extent that cannot normally be tolerated, then it is permissible for her to abort it & that is before the soul enters it. After that, it is absolutely not permissible to abort. (FM, p. 432)

Q142: In some situations, the physicians can confirm that the foetus is afflicted with serious physical deformities which will not be treatable after birth, & it may not survive after birth, except for a short while in pain (for the child), causing toil for the parents. Then he will die. Is it permissible for the mother in such a situation to terminate (the pregnancy)? Does it make any difference if it occurs before or after the soul enters? & with the supposition that it is permissible, is diyah obligatory & who pays for it?

A: Abortion is not permissible in situations similar to the one mentioned, even prior to the entrance of the soul. (MMS, pp. 30-31, Q60)

PAPER # 19 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

AL-QURAN:- Every soul (nafs) will, certainly, taste death. & you will, surely, be fully recompensed on the Day of Resurrection. & anyone who is saved from the Fire & admitted into the Garden (the Paradise) has indeed attained success. And the life of
this world is just vain & deceptive enjoyment
(3:185)

Q: What is one required to do by the Shariah when he is near the person who is in the course of dying (during Saqaraat) & soon after his/her death?

A: Procedures to be followed are:  
The dying person should be laid to face Qibla, as an obligatory precaution, in such a position that the soles of his/her feet face Qibla. In other words, if he/she were to sit upright his/her face would face Qibla.  
Note: If the dying person consents to it, there is no need to seek the permission for it from the guardian. Otherwise the permission must be sought).
a) It is recommended that the doctrinal testimony of Islam (Shahadatain) & the acknowledgement of the twelve Imams (AS) & other tenets faith should be inculcated to a dying person in such a manner that he/she would understand. It is also recommended that these utterances are repeated till the time of his/her death. 
c) If a person is in the throes of death it is recommended to recite by his side Surah Yasin, Surah as-Saffat, Surah al-Ahzab, Ayat al-Qursi, 54th verse of Surah al-A’raf & the last three verses of Surah al-Baqarah. In fact it is better to recite as much from the Holy Qur’an as possible.
d) It is recommended to carry a person experiencing painfully slow death to the place where he used to offer prayers, provided that it does not cause him any discomfort. (answer for “soon after death” will, insha-Allah, follow next week)

PAPER # 20
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

“…verily, the death from which you run away, will, surely, overtake you & will send you back to the Knower of the visible & invisible things & He will then inform you of what you used to do.” (Q. 62:8) (continued from last week – Paper # 19)

e) It is Makrooh to leave a dying person alone, place a weight on his stomach, chatter idly or wail near him, or to let only women remain with him. It is also Makrooh for a person in Janabah or Haidh to be near the dying person.
 

Soon After Death It is Mustahab to:

a) Close the eyes & the mouth of the dead person.
b) Stretch the arms along his/her sides & keep his/her legs straight.
c) Cover his/her body with a sheet of cloth.
d) If the death has taken place at night, the body should not be left in darkness.
e) Hasten the burial. Do not unduly delay it.
f) Inform Mo’mineen of the funeral.
g) Lay the dead body facing Qiblah during the three Ghusls in such a position that the soles of his/her feet face Qibla.
h) (after the three Ghusls) Lay the body the same way as it is laid when prayers are offered for it, i.e. the body is laid on its back, head on the right side & the right shoulder facing towards Qiblah.

Paper # 21 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Imam Baqir[a] said: "On the Reckoning Day, the first thing that a servant will be reckoned for is the prayer; therefore, if it is accepted, the rest (good actions) will be accepted, too, (otherwise, his other good deeds will not avail him)." Bihar-ul-Anwar vol.7,p 267

Q) What are the things for which performance of Wudhu is obligatory?
A) It is obligatory to perform Wudhu for the following six things:

(1) For all obligatory prayers, except Namaz-e-Meyyit.
(2) For the Sajdah & Tashahhud which a person forgot to perform during the prayers, provided that he invalidated his Wudhu after Namaz, & before performing those forgotten acts. It is not obligatory to perform Wudhu for Sajdatus Sahw.
(3) For the obligatory Tawaf of the Holy Ka’bah.
(4) If he has made a Nadhr, or a solemn pledge, or taken an oath for Wudhu.
(5) If he has made a Nadhr, for which act requires performance Wudhu. I.e. kissing the script of the Holy Qur’an.
(6) For washing & making Pak the Holy Qur’an which has become Najis when he becomes obliged to touch the script of the Holy Qur’an with his hand, or some other part of his body.

Q) If a person believes that the time of prayers has set in, & makes the Niyyat of Wajib Wudhu, & then realizes after performing the Wudhu that the time for the prayers has not set in, is his Wudhu in order?

A) Yes, his Wudhu is in order. Note: If a person performs Wudhu or Ghusl before the time of prayers, in order to be in the state of purity, they will be deemed valid. & even if he performs Wudhu near the time of Namaz, with the Niyyat of preparing himself for Namaz, there is no objection.

Q) If a person performs Wudhu for an act for which it is Mustahab to perform Wudhu, i.e. Namaz-e-Meyyit, visiting the graves, entering a Mosque, etc. can he pray with the same Wudhu?

A) Yes, if he has performed Wudhu for any one of the above purposes, he can commit all acts which require Wudhu. For example, he can even pray with that Wudhu.

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS. CONTEMPORARY LEAGEL RULINGS IN SHI'I LAW IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RULING
(FATAWA) OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU

The traditions concerning the signs of the last stage before the Zuhūr of our Imam (AS) mention music:
“& you shall see that music will be so prevalent that no one will dissuade others nor will he find in himself the need to do so. & you shall see that music would be openly played even in the two sanctuaries (the city of Makkah & Madinah).” (Mustanade Naraqi)

MUSIC Q 166] What is the limit separating lawful from unlawful music?

A] The separating limit is its being of suitable quality for the gatherings of amusement & of immorality.

Q 167] What is the criterion for prohibition regarding musical tunes? Is the criterion their actual use in songs by people of immorality or is it enough for them to be suitable for such purposes? Is there any difference in situation if they are used during the commemoration of Imam Husayn (AS) or Islamic songs, for example, etc.?

A] The rule also is their being suitable for gatherings (of amusement & of immorality) & their prohibition is absolutely not lifted by using them during the commemoration or otherwise, based on precaution.

Q168] What is the ruling on so-called music in present customary usage?

A] It is of two kinds. One of them suits the places of amusement & entertainment & thus listening to it is prohibited. The other one is other than this & therefore is not prohibited. (to be continued, insha-Allah, next week)

Paper # 22 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Imam Sadiq [a] was asked about the meaning of 'piety' when he replied: "Piety is that Allah does not miss you in the place where He has commanded you to be, & does not see (find) you where He has forbidden you from." Safinat-ul-Bihar, vol. 2, p. 678

GHUSL Q] Is it a condition for the validity of Ghusl that one’s entire body must be Pak before one commences to perform Ghusl?

A.378] It is not necessary that the entire body of a person should be Pak before Ghusl. So, if the body becomes Pak while pouring water over one’s body with the intention of the Ghusl, the Ghusl will be in order.

Q] Is the validity of Ghusl adversely affected if there exists a thing stuck on the body which would prevent water from reaching the skin?

A.383] All things which prevent water from reaching the body should be removed. If a person does Ghusl before ensuring that such obstacles have been removed, the Ghusl will be void.

Q] Is it necessary to include washing of hair in Ghusl?

A.385] While doing Ghusl, one should wash the short hair which are taken as a part of the body. Washing of the long hair is not obligatory.

Q] If a person does any act which would make the Wudhu void while he is performing Ghusl, will his Ghusl become void & should he start all over again?

A.392] If one does any act which would invalidate the Wudhu while doing Ghusl, one does not have to abandon the Ghusl & start all over again. In fact, one can continue with the same Ghusl till completion. However, in this situation, one will have to do Wudhu also, as per obligatory precaution.

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS CONTEMPORARY LEAGEL RULINGS IN SHI'I LAW IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RULING (FATAWA) OF
AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU

The Holy Prophet (saww) has said, “The Almighty Allah has sent me as a mercy to the worlds, to guide the people. & He ordered me to eradicate the playing of flute & other instruments of music, all games of vice, idol (worship) & all practices of the days of ignorance.” (Mustadrak ul-Wasa’il, Chapter 79) (continued from last week – Paper # 21)

MUSIC Q169] Some types of music are broadcast before the recitation of the noble Qur’an or the Adhan, before the religious program begins or during. Is it permissible to listen to it?

A] The great majority of them are of the second type & thus are lawful.

Q 170] Musical interludes are music that precedes announcement of the news.

A] The same applies (see answer above)

Q 172] Is it permissible to listen to religious songs, for example, religious phrases that are composed with musical tunes that are common amongst the people of amusement & entertainment?

A] It is prohibited to listen to them. The same ruling applies to all phrases that are not for pleasure & amusement – such supplication or dhikr – but composed with these musical tunes. (to be continued, insha-Allah, next week)

PAPER NO. 23
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS OBTAINED FROM THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF
AYATULLAH AL-UZMA SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAYNI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU www.sistani.org

Imam Amir ul Mu'mineen Ali [a.s.] said to Imam al-Hassan & Imam al-Husayn (AS) when 'Abd-ur-Rahman ibn Muljam (the curse of Allah be upon him) had struck him (fatally with a sword): "I advise you (both) to fear Allah & that you should not hanker after the (pleasures of this) world even though it may run after you. Do not be sorry for anything of this world that you have been denied. Speak the truth & act (in expectation) for reward. Be an enemy of the oppressor & helper of the oppressed." Nahj-ul-Balagha, letter 47

BEARD Question: Is it permissible to shave the two sides of the face & leave the hair on the chin?

Answer: Shaving the beard is haram based on obligatory precaution, & this includes the hair that grows on the sides of the face. However, there is no problem in shaving the hair that grows on the cheeks.

Question: Is it permissible to shave beard, if one is faced with an unavoidable or a difficult situation?

Answer: A Muslim is allowed to shave his beard, if he is compelled to do so or if he is forced to shave it for medical reasons, etc. It also allowed if he fears harm to his life by not shaving or if growing the beard would put him in difficulty (for example, if it becomes a cause of ridicule & humiliation that is not normally tolerable by a Muslim).

Question: At times the big companies in Europe discriminate —among those who come to them seeking jobs— between those who shave their beards & those who don’t shave them. If this is true, then is it permissible to be clean shaven in order to get the job?

Answer: Shaving the beard —whose prohibition is based on obligatory precaution— would not become permissible just by the desire to get a job with these companies.

PAPER # 23 
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS. CONTEMPORARY LEAGEL RULINGS IN SHI'I LAW IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RULING
(FATAWA) OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(continued from last week – Paper # 22)

Amir ul-Mu’minīn ‘Ali (AS) says, “Angels do not even enter a house that has wine, drum, tambourine or a flute. Even the prayers of the inhabitants of this house are unacceptable. They are deprived of barakat.” (Wasa’il ul-Shia)
Hazrat Imam ‘Ali ar-Riďa (AS) has said, “To listen to a musical instrument is one of the Greater Sins.” (Mustadrak ul-Wasa’il)

MUSIC Q173] Classical music is believed to soothe excited nerves, & is also prescribed at times for treatment of some psychological ailments. Is it permissible for me to listen to it?

A] Yes, it is permissible to listen to music which is not suited for the gatherings of amusement & entertainment.

Q 174] How about music with pictures that is associated with television films, popular serial programs, the aim of which is to raise the degree of excitement of the viewers in accordance with the atmosphere of the film. For example, if the exhibited scene is frightening, then this music helps in prompting fear & its effect on the viewers?

A] The great majority of them are of the lawful type.

Q 176] There are instruments made for children’s amusement. Is it permissible to buy & sell them?

A] It is permissible as long as they are not classified among the instruments of forbidden pleasure & amusement.

PAPER NO. 24 
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS OBTAINED FROM THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF AYATULLAH AL-UZMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAYNI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU www.sistani.org

Quote of Imam Hasan Al-Askari (AS): A time will come when people's faces will be lit up with smiles but their hearts black, dark & evil. The sunnah will be bid'ah to them & bid'ah the sunnah. The faithfuls would be humiliated & the sinners honored & revered. Their leaders would be ignorant & oppressive & scholars under the thumbs of such tyrants & oppressors. (Mustadrak al Wasail)

Endowment (Waqf) Q] I am searching for information regarding the governing of Waqf & the terms by which such property under the Waqf can be distributed & whether there has to be a trustee for a Waqf property.

A] Waqf or Endowment means that an individual sets aside a property in order that its benefits be used in a certain way which he or she has specified. In this case, the property itself can not be sold or be replaced , rather it must be maintained & its benefits must be disposed of in the way the donor specified. Therefore, the endowed property cannot be sold except in special cases which have been explained in detailed books & the benefits of that also can only be spent as he specified. If the waqf was for particular individuals, it must be divided among those same people. Since the original property must be kept & its benefits be used, naturally a person is needed to manage its affairs. Such a person is called a “Mutawalli” (trustee). If a trustee has not been appointed, the Hakim-e- Shari ( a Just Mujtahid) will appoint someone to manage its affairs. Naturally, the property must be placed in the hands of a trustworthy person who we are certain will act according to donator’s wishes & will not take possession of that property or betray the trust he was given.

Q] Can a person who gives something in waqf appoint a trustee for it?
A] The person creating the endowment could appoint a trustee to carry out the affairs of the endowment trust according to the deed of waqf.

PAPER NO. 25 
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FROM THE BOOK "CURRENT LEGAL ISSUES" English Version of (Al-Mustahdathat
Minan Masa'il Ash-Shari'a) (according to Edicts of Ayatullah As-Sayyid Ali Al-Husaini As- Seestani)

In his last Will Imam Ali (a.s) said.. I advise you, & all my children, my relatives, & whosoever receives this message, to be conscious of Allah, to remove your differences, & to strengthen your ties.
I heard the Prophet (s.a.w.w.) say: Reconciliation of your differences is more worthy than all prayers & all fasting. Maintain communication & exchange of opinion among yourselves. Beware of disunity & enmity. Do not desist from promoting good deeds
& cautioning against bad ones. Should you do that, the worst among you would be your leaders, & you will call upon Allah
without response.
Nahjuhl Balagha

Q] As a result of expansion, some cities which used to comprise a number of townships, have become very big ones. Do you consider such cities as one (physically) or the old demarcations between its different neighborhoods should be observed? Say, you set out on a journey heading to some other destination, from the easternmost point. The time for prayer was due, while you were still within its boundaries, that is in the westernmost point. Do you perform your prayer tamam (in its entirety) or qasr (shortened form). Also, when you return to such a big city & the time for prayer was due, while you were in its outskirts, do you say your prayer qasr or tamam? & what is the ruling on fasting in such a situation?

A] As explained in the question, such a city is considered one, i.e. the rule of different towns is not applicable. Of course, the yardstick in calculating the distance is the definition of Musafir (traveler). If such a city is very big & it fulfils the definition, when the person embarks on his journey from his neighborhood, though it be inside the city, the rule of Musafir applies here. Thus, the distance is calculated from the approaches of the neighborhood of the Mukallaf. If the definition does not apply unless he gets out of the city, the end of the city should be the start of calculating the distance from the edge of tarakkhus (the point at the parameter of a town, when, for instance, Adhan “call of prayer” can be heard).

Paper # 25
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

The Holy Prophet [s.a.w.w.] said: "Be careful of the prayers, for, on the Day of Resurrection, when Allah the Exalted, will bring the servant (for reckoning), the first thing that He will ask him about will be the prayer. If one brings it completely, he will be
of the people of salvation, otherwise, he will be thrown into Fire."
(Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 82, p. 202)

Q] Please, advise me the doubts in prayers which make the prayers void & there is no remedy for them?

A] The following doubts make prayers void:

1] Doubts about the number of Rak'ats occurring in obligatory prayers which consist of 2 Rak'ats, like, Fajr prayers, or prayers offered by a traveler.
2] Doubts about the number of Rak'ats occurring in prayers consisting of 3 Rak'ats, that is, Maghrib prayers.  
3] Doubt occurring in prayers of 4 Rak'ats as to whether one has performed one Rak'at or more.
4] Doubt in prayers of 4 Rak'ats before going to the second Sajdah, as to whether he has performed 2 Rak'ats or more.
5] Doubts between 2 & 5 Rak'ats or between 2 & more than 5 Rak'ats.
6] Doubts between 3 & 6 Rak'ats or between 3 & more than 6 Rak'ats.
7] Doubt between 4 & 6 Rak’ats or between 4 & more than 6 Rak’ats.
If a person has one of those doubts which makes prayers void, it is better for him to break the prayers if the doubt persists. In fact, he should prolong thinking about it so that the form of namaz changes, or till he loses all hope to ascertain the situation.

Paper # 26
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

The Holy Prophet [s] said: "The worship done by the one who earns his living on unlawful money is similar to a building
constructed upon sand."
Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 84, p. 258

Q] Which are the doubts in prayers which should be ignored?

A] The following doubts should be ignored:  

1] Doubt about an act whose time of performance has already passed, like, during Ruku’ a person doubts as to whether he did or did not recite Surah al-Hamd,  
2] Doubt occurring after the Salaam of prayers,  
3] Doubt after the time of prayers has already passed,  
4] Doubt of a person, who doubts too much,  
5] Doubt by the Imam (one who leads the congregation prayers) about the number of Rak'ats when the ma'mum (follower) is aware of the number, & similarly the doubts of the ma'mum when the Imam knows the number of Rak'ats,  
6] Doubt which occurs in Mustahab prayers & Namaz of Ihteyat.

Paper # 27
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Sulayman-ibn-Mahran said that he visited Imam Sadiq [a] while some of the followers (Shi'ah) were attending him [a] & he heard that the Imam [a], addressing them, said: "(Behave) to be as ornaments for us & not to be against us as shame. Tell people of goodness, & protect your tongues & hold it from excessive talk & offensive speech." (Al-Amali, by Saduq, p. 142)

Q. Please, advise me the things on which it is allowed to perform Sajdah.

A. Sajdah should be performed on earth, & on those things which are not edible nor worn, & on things which grow from earth (e.g. wood & leaves of trees). Details as under:

a] Turbatul Husayn (AS) is the best thing for performing Sajdah. After it, there are earth, stone & grass, in order of priority
b] Sajdah can be performed on things which grow from the earth, & serve as fodder for animals (e.g. grass, hay, etc.).  
c] Sajdah can be performed on flowers which are not edible & also on medical herbs which grows from the earth. But Sajdah on raw fruits is not permissible. 
d] Sajdah can be performed on limestone & gypsum, but the recommended precaution is that Sajdah should not be optionally performed on baked gypsum, lime, brick & baked earthenware, etc. 
e] It is permissible to perform Sajdah on cement (Contemporary Legal Rulings in Shi’I Law – Ayatullah Seestani)

Paper # 28
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA SAYYID
ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
 (unless otherwise indicated)

Imam Sadiq [a] said: "There are three things which are the honor of a believer & his ornament both in this world & the next. They are: prayers in the last part of night (night prayers), not coveting what people possess in their hands, & the love
(& leadership) of an Imam from the progeny of Muhammad [s].
" (Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 75, p. 107)

(to be continued next week)

f] Sajdah can be performed on paper, if it is manufactured from allowed sources like wood or grass, & also if it is made from cotton or flax.  
g] If a person does not possess anything on which it is allowed to perform Sajdah, or, even if he possesses such a thing, he cannot perform Sajdah on it due to severe heat or cold, he should perform Sajdah on asphalt or tar, & if that is not possible, on his dress or the back of his hand, or on any thing on which it is not permissible to perform Sajdah optionally. However, in such a situation, the recommended precaution is that as long as it is possible to perform Sajdah on his dress he should not do Sajdah on any other thing. 
h] The Sajdah performed on mud, & on soft clay on which one’s forehead cannot rest steadily, is void. 
i] If the Mohr sticks to the forehead in the first Sajdah, it should be removed from the forehead for the second Sajdah.

Paper # 29
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

In Iqab al-'a'mal, al-Saduq reports with his isnad from the Prophet (s.a.w.w.) that he said: "Whoever refutes the Ghibah of his brother that he hears in a gathering, God shall turn away from him a thous& kinds of evils in this world & the next. But if he fails to refute
 it & is even pleased thereat, his burden of sin is like that of the backbiter.
(Ibid., Hadith No. 16340.)

Q. Please, advise me what are the things (or actions) while praying which would render the Namaz Makrooh?

A. 1166. It is Makrooh that a person in Namaz slightly turns his face towards right or left, an angle which would not be construed as deviation from Qibla, otherwise Namaz will be void. It is also Makrooh during prayers to shut the eyes or turn towards right or left, & to play with one's beard & hands, & to cross the fingers of one h& into those of another, & to spit.
It is also Makrooh to look at the writing of the holy Qur'an, or some other books or a ring. It is also Makrooh to become silent while reciting Surah al-Hamd, or any other Surah, or Zikr, so as to listen to some conversation. & in fact, every such act which disturbs attention & humility is Makrooh.

1167. It is Makrooh for a person to offer prayers when he is feeling drowsy, or when he restrains his urge for urinating or defecation. Similarly, it is Makrooh to offer prayers with tight socks which press the feet. There are other things also which are Makrooh in namaz. They are mentioned in detailed books on the subject.

Paper # 30
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FROM CURRENT LEGAL ISSUES, ENGLISH VERSION OF (Al-Mustahdathat Minal
Masaa’il Ash-Shari’a) of AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU

The Holy Prophet [s.a.w.w.] said: "There will come a time for my Ummah when their rulers will be cruel, their scholars will be greedy
& have little piety, their worshippers (will act) hypocritically, their merchants will commit usury & conceal the defects of their buying & selling & their women will be busy with the ornaments of the world. Hence, at this time, the most vicious of them will dominate over them, & their good doers will invocate but they will not be answered."
(Bihar-uI-Anwar, vol. 23, p. 22)

Q. Is it permissible for a Muslim to give false information to Government Departments in Europe to gain some financial or abstract benefits, through proper channels?

A. It is not permissible because it is lying; what has been mentioned in the question does not fall within its justifications.

Q. A person has entered a country as a visitor & his Passport was stamped that he was not allowed to work. If he works illegally & gets the money ‘under the table’, is it Halal?

A. If the Visa was granted against an undertaking that the person should not engage in any sort of employment during the period of his stay in the country, his infringement of the undertaking is Haraam. However, this should not deny him the wages for the work; it is permissible that he has the right of disposal over it as he deems fit.

Q. Is it permissible to send seasonal greetings, such as on Christmas to People of the Book or unbelievers?

A. There is no harm in greeting them on their occasions.

Paper # 31
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

The Holy Prophet [s] said: "There will come a time for people that: they will not respect their scholars except for their good
clothing; they will not hearken to the Qur'an except for the pleasant voice; & they will not worship Allah except for during the fasting month; there will be no shyness in their women, no patience in their poor ones; & no prosperity for their rich ones, they will not be contented with a small (portion), & they will not be satiated with abundance. They will strive (only) for their stomach; their religion is their money (wealth); their women are their Qiblah (direction of worship); & their homes are their mosques; they
 run away from their scholars just as lambs run away from wolves. Then, when they become like that, the Lord will afflict them
with three conditions. At first, He takes the prosperity from their properties. The second is that a cruel ruler will dominate
them. The third is that they will pass away from this world without having (true) Faith."
(Waqayi'-ul-'Ayyam, p. 439)

Q. Is it recommended to recite Adhan in a melodious tune?

A. If Adhan is recited in a melodious tune, rendering it musical, that is, like the way singers sing to entertain the people, it is Haraam. If it does not become musical, it is Makrooh.

Q. Is it recommended to recite Adhan before each prayer?

A. Whenever a person offers two prayers together, one after the other, having recited Adhan for the first prayer, he will not recite Adhan for the second prayer. But reciting Adhan for the second prayer does not become necessary only if there is no prolonged gap between the two prayers. A small time lapse between two prayers caused by reciting Duas or praying Nafilah will not be taken as a prolonged gap.

Q. Is it recommended to follow the recitation of Adhan when one hears the Adhan being recited?

A. It is Mustahab that when a person hears Adhan, he follows by uttering together in a low voice whatever he hears.

Q. Should there be any time gap between Adhan & Iqamah?

A. An inordinate lapse of time should not be allowed between Adhan & Iqamah, & if an excessive gap is allowed between them, it is Mustahab that Adhan be pronounced once again.

Q. Is it recommended to pronounce Adhan facing Qibla?

A. It is Mustahab that while pronouncing Adhan, a person should stand facing Qibla & should have performed Wudhu or Ghusl. It is Mustahab to place the hands on his ears, & raise one’s voice. Also, one should pause between the recital of different sentences.

PAPER NO. 32 
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS OBTAINED FROM THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF AYATULLAH AL-UZMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAYNI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU www.sistani.org

O son of Adam, when you see that your Lord, the Glorified, bestows His Favors on you while you disobey Him, you should
fear Him (take warning that His Wrath may not turn those very blessings into misfortunes).
Nahjul Balagha

MEAT & MARINE ANIMALS Q. What kind of marine animals are Halal?

A. It is not permissible to eat from marine animals anything except fish that has scale; shrimp is considered from that category (of permissible sea animals). But other than fish, like lobster, & similarly the fish that does not have scale is forbidden. Allah knows the best.

Q. Is Kosher meat Halal?

A. It is not Halal.

Q. On the package of meat that is produced in Muslim countries by non-Muslim Companies, it says, “slaughtered according to Islamic laws”.  Are we allowed to eat that meat ?Can we eat that meat, if it comes from Muslim Companies in non-Muslim countries? & what is the ruling, if the source is non-Muslim company from a non-Muslim country?

A. The writing (on the package) has no value at all. If the producer is a Muslim or it was produced in a place where Muslim are in the majority & it is not known that the producer is a non-Muslim then it is permissible to eat it. But if the producer is a non-Muslim or it was produced in a place where Muslims are not in the majority & it is not known that the producer is a Muslim, then it is not permissible to eat it.

Q. Is it permissible to eat halăl food which has been steam cooked with the steam of meat not slaughtered according to Islamic laws?

A. It is not permissible since the food, as mentioned in the question, will be considered impure (najis) because of coming into contact with the wet parts from the steam of the impure meat. (to be continued next week)

PAPER NO. 33 
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS OBTAINED FROM THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF AYATULLAH AL-UZMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAYNI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU www.sistani.org

Endurance is composed of four attributes: eagerness, fear, piety & anticipation (of death). so whoever is eager for Paradise will ignore temptations; whoever fears the fire of Hell will abstain from sins; whoever practices piety will easily bear the
difficulties of life & whoever anticipates death will hasten towards good deeds. Nahjul Balagha

MEAT & MARINE ANIMALS (continued from last week) Q. We enter some Super Markets in Europe & find meat in tin containers produced by a European company with the writing on the package that conveys the sense of it being “Halal” or “slaughtered according to Islamic Laws”. Is it permissible to buy & eat such meat?

A. The writing (on the package) has no value if it does not lead to certainty (that it is actually Halal)

Q. Meat companies slaughter a large number of chickens at one time [that is, simultaneously]. Now if the person running the slaughtering machine is a Muslim, who says takbír & says the name of Allăh only once at the time of slaughtering all the chicken [simultaneously], is it permissible for us to eat those chickens? If we have doubt about these chickens being halăl, can we [ignore that doubt and] eat them & consider them pure (tăhir)?

A. If he repeats the name of Allăh as long as the machine is continuing to slaughter, it is sufficient. In the event of doubt about its being halăl (a doubt which arises concerning the mentioning of the name of Allăh), it can be considered pure & be consumed.

Q. Is it permissible to buy meat thinking that it is slaughtered according to Islamic laws from a super-market owned by a Muslim who [also] sells alcoholic drinks?

A. Yes, it is permissible; & it is halăl to eat, even if it previously came from a non-Muslim as long as there is a likelihood that the shopkeeper has ascertained that it was slaughtered according to the shari‘a laws; but not if there is no such likelihood. (to be continued next week)

PAPER NO. 34 
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS OBTAINED FROM THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF AYATULLAH AL-UZMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAYNI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU www.sistani.org

Justice has four aspects depth of understanding, profoundness of knowledge, fairness of judgment & dearness of mind; because whoever tries his best to under- stand a problem will have to study it, whoever has the practice of studying the subject he is to
 deal with, will develop a clear mind & will always come to correct decisions, whoever tries to achieve all this will have to
develop ample patience & forbearance & whoever does this has done justice to the cause of religion & has led
a life of good repute & fame.
Nahjul Balagha

MEAT & MARINE ANIMALS (continued from last week) Q. Commercial fishing vessels place their huge nets [in the sea] & catch tons of fish which are then sold in the markets. It is well known that modern methods of fishing are based on catching the fish alive, & that the fishermen throw the dead fish back into the water for fear of contamination.

Therefore, is it permissible for us to buy such fish in the markets of non-Muslims? Is it permissible for us to buy such fish from Muslims who are not considerate of religious laws? In both the cases to ascertain that this particular fish in front of me was taken out of the water alive, should seek the advice of an expert & reliable witness to testify to that fact which may prove difficult, impractical, & unrealistic.

So, is there a solution for practicing Muslims who face difficulty in ascertaining whether or not the meat of chicken, cow or sheep is halăl, & therefore take to eating fish instead?

A. There is no problem in buying it from Muslims or non-Muslims; as there is no problem in eating it, if they are satisfied that the fish was caught by the method mentioned above & that it belongs to the category of scale fish.

Q. At times we find the name or picture of fish on the cans & come to know that the fish is a scale fish. So, is it permissible for us to rely on the name or the picture in determining the category of fish, knowing well that a wrong statement of this kind would put the manufacturers in great loss or even more serious [situation] than just a loss?

A. If one is satisfied it is the truth, it is permissible to act upon it.

Q. Is it permissible to buy a fish from a Muslim who is not a Shi‘a while we have no knowledge whether it is from the category of scale fish or not?

A. It is permissible to buy it but one cannot eat it unless he makes sure that it is from the category of scale fish.

Paper # 35
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

One who while fasting does not guard his tongue from telling lies & does not refrain from bad deeds, is not respecting his
fast. Allah does not approve of mere abstention from food. Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.)

(Q) If a person is not sure whether it is the last day of Sha’baan or the first day of Ramadhan, if he decides to fast on that day, what Niyyat is he required to keep?

(A) If one doubts whether it is the last day of Sha’baan or the first day of Ramadhan then the fast on that day is not obligatory. However, if one wants to fast on that day he cannot do so with the intention of observing the Ramadhan fast, but if he makes an intention that if it is Ramadhan then it is the Ramadhan fast & if it is not Ramadhan then it is qadha’ fast or some other fast like that, his fast will be valid. But it is better to observe the fast with the intention of qadha’  fast or some other fast, & if it is known later that it was Ramadhan then it will automatically be Ramadhan fast. & if he learns on the same day before Maghrib that it is the first day of Ramadhan, then he should convert the intention to the Ramadhan fast.

(Q) Is a person required to make Niyyat for fasting every night during the month of Ramadhan for the next day’s fasting?

(A) A person can make niyyat every night of the holy month of Ramadhan that he would be fasting on the following day, & it is better to make niyyat on the first night of Ramadhan that he would fast throughout that month.

(Q) What is the last time a person is allowed to make Niyyat for fasting in the month of Ramadhan?

(A) The last time for making niyyat to observe a fast of Ramadhan for a conscious person, is moments before the time of adhan for fajr prayers.

(Q) If a person forgot to make Niyyat for fasting in the month of Ramadhan at night & he sleeps & does not wake up until the next morning after the sun has already arisen, can he make Niyyat then & fast?

(A) If a person sleeps before the time for fajr prayers in Ramadhan without making a niyyat, & wakes up before zuhr to make a niyyat of fast, his fast will be in order. But if he wakes up after Zuhr, as a precaution, he should continue with the abstinence with the niyyat of qurbat  & then give its qadha’ also.

(Q) What is the position of a fast of a person who makes Niyyat at night to fast the next day in the month of Ramadhan, then he goes to sleep & does not wake up until after Maghrib?

(A) If a person makes a niyyat before the time of Adhan for Fajr prayers to observe a fast, & then goes to sleep, & wakes up after Maghrib his fast is in order.

Paper # 36
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Imam as-Sadiq (AS) has said: "Goodness towards the parents is an indication of a person's excellent cognizance of Allah. This is because there is no worship that can take a person towards the happiness of Allah faster than exhibiting respect towards
his Muslim parents for the sake of Allah."
(Biharul Anwar, Volume 74, Page.77)

(Q) Kindly advise me the categories of people who are exempted from fasting?

(A) (i) Fasting is not obligatory on a person who cannot fast because of old age.
(ii) Fasting is not obligatory on a person for whom fasting causes extreme hardship but in this case, he should give one mudd (3/4 kg. [750 gms.]) food to a poor person for every fast.
(iii) Fasting is not obligatory on a person who suffers from a disease which causes excessive thirst, making it unbearable, or full of hardship. But in the case of hardship, he should give one mudd of food to poor for every fast.
(iv) Fasting is not obligatory on a woman in advanced stage of pregnancy, for whom fasting is harmful or for the child she carries. For every day, however, she should give one mudd of food to poor. In both the cases, she has to give qadha for the fasts which are left out.
(v) Fasting is not obligatory on a woman who is sucking a child, whether she is the mother or nurse, or suckles it free, if the quantity of her milk is small, & if fasting is harmful to her or to the child. She should give one mudd of food per day to the poor & she will later give qadha for the fasts left out. This rule is specifically applicable in a circumstance where this is the only way of feeding milk to the child (as an obligatory precaution). But if there is an alternative, like, when more than one woman offer to suckle the child, then establishing this rule is a matter of ishkal.
(vi) Fasting is not obligatory for a woman who is in the state of Haidh or Nifas. She has to give qadha’ for the fasts left out.
(vii) If a person knows that fasting is not harmful to him, he should fast & his fast will be valid even if his doctor advises him that it is harmful. & if a person is certain or has a strong feeling that fasting is harmful to him, he should not fast even if the doctor advises for it. He/she is required to give qadha’ for the fasts left out.
(viii) If a person, without any shari’i reason does not observe qadha of the fasts left out during Mahe Ramadhan till next Ramadhan, then in addition to offering the qadha of the fasts he/she left , on the basis of obligatory precaution, he/she will give one mudd of food to poor for each fast left out.

Paper # 37
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

O Jabir! Whoever during the month of Ramadhan, fasts in its days, stands up for prayers in parts of the night, controls his desires & emotions, puts a rein on his tongue, keeps his eyes down, & does not injure the feelings of others, will become
as free of sins as the day he was born. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (AS)

(Q) If a person fasts when traveling owing to ignorance of the relative Mas’ala, is he required to give only Qadha or Qadha + Kaffara?

(A) If a person does not know that the fast of a traveler is invalid & observes fast while journeying, & learns about the rule during the day, his fast becomes void, but if he does not learn about the rule till Maghrib, his fast is valid.

(Q) If a person forgets that he is traveler or forgets the Mas’ala that a traveler cannot fast & he fasts, does his fast remain valid?

(A) If a person forgets that he is a traveler or forgets that the fast of a traveler is not valid, & observes fast while journeying, his fast is invalid.

(Q) Can a fasting person do constant mouth washing to keep his mouth fresh?

(A) It is Makrooh to do excessive mouth washing for a fasting person, & after the mouthwash if he wishes to swallow saliva, it is better that he spits it our three times before doing so.

(Q) If a fasting person rinses his mouth with water because it has dried due to heat & the water goes down his throat unintentionally, does his fast remain valid?

(A) When one rinses his mouth because it has dried due to thirst & the water uncontrollably goes down his throat, his fast will become void & he has to give Qadha for it. In the case when a person is performing Wudhu & the water uncontrollably goes down his throat, his fast will remain valid.

(Q) If a fasting person is doubtful whether it is already Maghrib or not, can he break his fast?

(A) He cannot break his fast until he is sure that Maghrib has set in. On the other hand, if he doubts whether or not it is already Fajr, he can commit an act which invalidates a fast.

Paper # 38
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FROM A CODE OF PRACTICE FOR MUSLIMS IN THE WEST IN ACCORDANCE WITH
EDICTS OF AYATULLAH AL-UDHMA AS-SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AS-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Amir al-Mu'mineen (AS) has said: "Stinginess is the cause of destruction, & cowardliness is the cause of deficiency. Be generous but do not be spendthrift. Give in charity in a reasonable amount, but do not be too stingy. Do not be shy to give a little amount
of charity, since by depriving the poor from even a little amount will end up in even less for them. I am amazed at stingy
people who rush into poverty from which they have escaped, & love self-sufficiency while they are seeking it,
& live like the poor in this world while they are just as accountable as the rich in the Hereafter. Stinginess
is the combination of all wickedness, & is what draws man to all that is evil."
(Mishkat al-Anwar fi Ghurar il-Akhbar Hadith No. 137)

(Q) Can a person who is fasting swallow phlegm if it has already reached his mouth?

(A) It is preferable for the fasting person not to swallow phlegm that has reached his mouth, although it is permissible for him to swallow it. Similarly, it is permissible for him to swallow the saliva that has gathered in the mouth, even in large quantity.

(Q) Is it permissible for a fasting person to brush his teeth with a toothbrush & toothpaste?

(A) Brushing the teeth with brush & toothpaste does not invalidate the fast as long as the person does not swallow the saliva that has mixed with the toothpaste. However, the lingering flavor or taste of the paste that mixes with the saliva does not affect the fasting.

(Q) Would the use of a nozzle spray that facilitates breathing invalidate the fast?

(A) If the spray that comes out of the nozzle enters the respiratory tract & not the passage of food & drink, it does not invalidate the fast.

(Q) Some allergy sufferers use an apparatus which we call an “inhalator” to assist them in easy breathing. After its placement in the mouth & pressing it, this apparatus emits what is like pressurized gas. Can this apparatus be used at the time of fasting?

(A) Yes. One who uses this (apparatus) remains on his fast & fast is valid.(FM, p.402)
(Reference: Contemporary Legal Rulings in Shi’ia Law in accordance with the rulings of Ayatullah Al-Seestani)

(Q) Does the nutrition given intravenously invalidate fast irrespective of whether or not it was absolutely necessary for the patient?

(A) In both the cases, it does not invalidate the fasting.

Paper # 39 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

In our own evaluation, we judge a person by his deeds. This is so because we, as human beings, cannot know the motives of the doer. But does Allah judge the people in the same way? No, on the day of judgment, Allah will not judge by looking at the deed;
He will judge by looking at the motives. In Islamic value system, motive is as important as the deed itself. Rather according
to the Prophet, "Verily, the deeds are (evaluated according to) the motives."
(Wasa'il, vol. 1, p. 33)

Question: Kindly explain to me how to go about purifying Najis things with water? Please, also include the various types of water & the various types of objects involved.

Answer: Water is either pure or mixed. Mixed water (Ma 'ul Muzaf) means the water which is obtained from something like melon juice, or rose water, or that water in which something else is mixed, (for example, so much dust is mixed in it that it may no longer be called water). Mixed water, however large its quantity may be, becomes NAJIS when even a small particle of Najasat falls in it. A Najis thing cannot be made Pak with mixed water nor are Ghusl & Wudhu valid when performed with mixed water.
Any water other than mixed water is called pure water (Ma'ul Mutlaq), & they are of five types: Kurr Water, Under Kurr Water, (Qaleel) Running Water, (Jaaree) Rain Water, Water of a Well
1) Kurr Water means water which fills a container which can carry a minimum of 388 litres. Tap water which is connected to a tap containing water equal to a Kurr is considered to be Kurr  water.
If essential Najasat like urine, blood, or anything which has become Najis, like a Najis cloth, falls in Kurr water & if the water acquires the smell, color, or taste of that Najasat, it becomes Najis; but if it does not, then it is not Najis.
2) Under-Kurr Water means water which does not sprint forth from the earth, & its quantity is less than a Kurr.
Under-Kurr water becomes Najis when even a small particle of Najasat falls in it. & it makes no difference whether its smell, color or taste changes or not.
3) Running Water is that water which springs forth from the earth & then flows, like the water of a spring or a canal.
The flowing or running water, even if it is less than a Kurr, does not become Najis upon contact with any Najasat, unless its smell, color, or taste changes due to that Najasat.
4) Rain Water. By rain is meant a sufficient downpour, & not scanty shower or droplets.
5) Water of a Well which springs forth from the earth, (although its quantity may be less than a Kurr) does not become Najis owing to something Najis falling in it, unless its color, smell or tast changes.
(to be continued next week)

Paper # 40 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Do not acquire a bad reputation & do not allow your good reputation to be sullied. Do not mention hearsay things as authenticated facts, such a practice will be sufficient for you to be regarded by others as liar. Do not develop the habit of contradicting &
falsifying others on every occasion, it is a disgusting habit. Have a control on your temper. If you have  power to
retaliate, then forgive & forget. When in anger, be forbearing, patient & tolerant.
 (Nahjul Balagha, Letters # 69)

PURIFICATION OF NAJIS THINGS WITH WATER. CONDITIONS OF WATER. (continued from last week)

1) The water should be pure. 2) The water should be pak. 3) The water should not turn into mixed water (Muzaf) while the Najis thing is being washed.
Further more, the smell, color or taste of the Najasat  should not exist after the final washing, but if changes occur during earlier washing, there is no harm in it. For example, if a thing is being washed with pure & pak water and, in order to make it pak, it is necessary to wash it twice, it will become pak if the changes in water do not occur in the second washing. Any changes in water occurring in the first washing would not matter but it will have to be replaced with pure & pak water before the second washing.

HOW TO MAKE PAK A NAJIS THING WITH UNDER-KURR WATER, KURR WATER OR RUNNING WATER.

Before making anything pak it is necessary to remove any oily or greasy substances which would prevent water from reaching the thing to be made pak. A najis thing does not become pak unless the essential najasat like urine, blood, etc. is removed from it. In other words, any particles of essential najasat should not remain behind in a najis thing after it has been washed. But there is no harm if the color or smell of the najasat remains in it. So, if blood is removed from a cloth, & the cloth is made pak with water, it will become pak even if the color or smell of blood remains in it. But if, on account of the smell or color, it becomes certain or seems possible that some particles of najasat  are still present in the cloth, etc. it will remain najis.  (to be continued next week) – How to make pak household utencils.

Paper # 41 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

[al-Kulayni narrates] through his chains from Muhammad ibn ‘Ajlaan that he said: “I heard Abu ‘Abdillah (AS) saying: ‘Allah had put some people to shame because of their spreading [rumors], as He, the Mighty, the Great, says: & when there comes to them news of security or fear, they spread it. Therefore, take care not to spread [rumors]’.” (al-Kafi).
(continued from last week) Before making anything pak it is necessary to remove any oily or greasy substances which would prevent
water from reaching the thing to be made pak.

1] HOW TO MAKE PAK HOUSEHOLD UTENCIL

(a) The interior of a najis vessel or utensil must be washed three times if less than kurr water is used, & as per obligatory precaution, the same will apply if kurr or running water is used.
(b) If a dog drinks any liquid from a utensil [or licks it & something remains in it] it should first be scrubbed with pak earth, & after washing off the dust, it should be washed twice with kurr water or lesser water.
(c) If the saliva of a dog falls into the vessel, as per obligatory precaution, it should be scrubbed with pak earth, & after washing off the dust, it should be washed three times. If the mouth of a utensil which a dog has licked is narrow, dust should be thrown into it & after adding some quantity of water, it should be shaken vigorously, so that the dust may reach all parts of it. Thereafter, the utensil should be washed in the manner mentioned above.
(d) If a utensil is licked by a pig, or if it drinks any liquid from it, or in which a field-mouse has died in it, then it should be washed seven times with running water, kurr or under-kurr water.
(e) If a utensil becomes najis with of alcoholic beverage, it should be washed three times with kurr or under-kurr or running water.
(f) A najis utensil can be made pak with under-kurr water in two ways.
(i) The utensil should be filled up with water & emptied three times.
(ii) Some quantity of water is poured in it, & then the utensil is vigorously shaken, so that the water reaches all najis parts before it is spilled. This should be done three times.  (to be continued next week) – Thing, cloth & carpet.

Paper # 42  
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

The Holy Prophet [s.a.w.w.] said: "There will come a time for people that: they will not respect their scholars except for their
good clothing; they will not hearken to the Qur'an except for the pleasant voice; & they will not worship Allah except for  during the fasting month; there will be no shyness in their women, no patience in their poor ones; & no prosperity for their rich ones, they will not be contented with a small (portion), & they will not be satiated with abundance. They will strive (only) for
their stomach; their religion is their money (wealth); their women are their Qiblah (direction of worship); & their
homes are their mosques; they run away from their scholars just as lambs run away from wolves.
Then, when they become like that, the Lord will afflict them with three conditions. At first, He takes the prosperity from their properties. The second is that a cruel ruler will dominate them. The third is that they will pass away from this world without having (true) Faith."
(Waqayi'-ul-'Ayyam, p. 439)

HOW TO MAKE PAK A NAJIS THING WITH UNDER-KURR WATER, KURR WATER OR RUNNING WATER.

THINGS (a) If a najis thing, after removing the najasat, is immersed once in Kurr or running water, in such a way that water reaches all its najis parts, it becomes pak.
(b) If a thing becomes najis with najasat other than urine it can be made pak with under-kurr water by first removing the najasat  & then pouring under kurr water once, allowing it to flow off.
(c) When a thing has become najis with urine, it can be made pak with under-kurr water by pouring under-kurr water once on it, & as the water flows off eliminating all the traces of urine, the thing will become pak.

BODY (a) If a body becomes najis, & if the Najasat is removed in Kurr or running water, the body will become pak, except when it becomes najis because of urine, for which one washing is not enough. It needs two washing. But it is not necessary to walk in & out of water to achieve two washings. If a person under water wipes the najis part with hand, allowing water to reach there again, it will suffice.
(b) If a part of the najis body is washed with under-kurr water the parts adjacent to it where water usually reaches will become pak, when the najis part becomes pak. It means that it is not necessary to wash those sides independently, as the najis part & parts around it become pak together. (to be continued next week) – Hair, Cloth, Carpet & Food.

Paper # 43 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Asbaq-ibn-Nubatah has narrated from the first Imam, Amir ul Mu'mineen Ali [a.s.], who said the Prophet [s.a.w.w.] said: "When Allah Almighty & Glorious sends His wrath on a nation & does not punish (them) by it, then; their prices will go up (expensive), their lifetimes will shorten, their merchants will not gain profits, their fruits will not be abundant, their streams will not become brimful, their rain will be withheld from them, & their vicious ones will dominate over them." (Khisal by Saduq, vol. 2, p.360)
Note: The summary of this tradition is that if the destructive penalty does not destroy such a nation, they will be inflicted
with seven afflictions because of their committing sins. (continued from last week)

HOW TO MAKE PAK A NAJIS THING WITH UNDER-KURR WATER, KURR WATER OR RUNNING WATER.

HAIR (a) If the najis hair of head or face is washed with under-kurr water & if it is not overgrown, it is not necessary to squeeze them for remaining water to flow off.

FOOD (a) If the exterior of wheat, rice, soap, etc. becomes najis, it becomes pak by dipping it in kurr or running water. But if their interior becomes najis, they will be pak if kurr or running water reaches the internal parts. However, in the case of a soap & similar objects, water does not reach the internal parts at all.
Note: If one doubts whether najis water has seeped into the interior of soap or not, its interior will be considered pak.
(b) If the outer part of rice, meat, or any other similar thing becomes najis, it may be placed in a bowl, etc., & then water is poured on it once. Then the bowl is emptied so that the object in it becomes pak. But if the bowl itself is najis, this process must be repeated three times. At the end, the bowl will also become pak.
(c) If najis food remains between the teeth, & water is taken in the mouth & moved in such a way that it reaches the entire najis food, the food becomes pak.
(d) If najis sugar, or syrup is turned into solid cubes, or granules, it will not become pak  if it is immersed in kurr or running water.
(to be continued next week) – Cloth, Carpet & Floor

Paper # 44 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

The Holy Prophet [s.a.w.w.] said: "He who propagates religious affairs without having required competency does a disservice to
the religion rather than serving it."
(Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 2, p.121)
The Holy Prophet [s.a.w.w.] said: "The abandoning of backbiting is more valuable to Allah, Almighty & Glorious, than
the performance of ten thous& rak'at of recommended prayers."
(Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 75, p. 261)
Imam Amir-ul-Mu'mineen Ali [a] said: "The most vicious person is he who looks for other people's defects while he
overlooks his own faults."
(Tara'if-ul-Hikam, p. 176) (continued from last week)

HOW TO MAKE PAK A NAJIS THING WITH UNDER-KURR WATER, KURR WATER OR RUNNING WATER.

CLOTH & CARPET (a) A najis cloth or carpet when immersed once in kurr or running water, in such a way that water reaches all its najis parts, it becomes pak. It is not necessary to squeeze or wring or press it. If it becomes najis  with urine, it must be washed twice.
(b) If a najis cloth or carpet is to be made pak with under-kurr water, it should be washed once but it must be wrung or squeezed till the water remaining in it runs out. If it becomes najis with urine, it must be washed twice & also squeezed or wrung each time till the water remaining in it runs out.
(c) If a najis dress which has been dyed is dipped into kurr or running water, it will become pak if water reaches all its parts before water becomes mudhaaf with color. But if it is made pak with under-kurr water, it will become pak only if mudhaaf water does not come out at the time of wringing or squeezing.
(d) If a part of najis dress or carpet is washed with under-kurr water, the parts adjacent to it where water usually reaches will become pak, when the najis part becomes pak. It means that it is not necessary to wash those sides independently, as the najis part & parts around it become pak together.

FLOOR (a) If the floor which is made of stone, or bricks or other hard ground, in which water is not absorbed, becomes najis, it can be made pak with under-kurr water, but, it is necessary that so much water is poured on it that it begins to flow. & if that water is not drained out, & it collects there, it should be drawn out by a vessel or soaked by a cloth.

Paper # 45 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

The Importance of Abstaining From the Prohibited
Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (AS) said: “To refrain from eating a single morsel of Harām is, near Allah, more valued than the performance
of two thous& Rak’ats of recommended prayer.”
(Iddat’ud-Dai) 
“To forgo a single Dirham of prohibited money, is equal near Allah, to seventy accepted Hajj.” (Iddat’ud-Dai)

Question: Kindly explain the kinds of fish & the conditions required to be fulfilled for fish to be Halaal to eat.

Answer: All types of fish that have scales (even if it is not fully covered with scales & even if it has but a single scale) & are caught alive from water are allowed to eat. Details as under:

1] If a fish with scales is caught alive from water, & it dies thereafter, it is Paak & Halaal to eat, even if the scales are shed off later due to some reasons. It is also lawful to eat if it dies in the net of the fisherman. 
2] If a fish falls out of water or a wave throws it out, or the water recedes & the fish remains on dry ground, if some one catches it with his h& or by some other means before it dies, it will be Halaal to eat it after it dies. 
3] It is not necessary that a person catching a fish should be a Muslim or should utter the name of Allah while catching it. It is, however, necessary that a Muslim should have seen or ascertained that the fish was brought alive from the water, or that it died in the net in water. 
4] If a dead fish about which it is not known whether it was caught from water alive or dead, is bought from a Muslim, it is Halaal, but if it is bought from a non-Muslim, it is Haraam  even if he claims that he has brought it alive from the water; EXCEPT WHEN A MAN FEELS SATISFIED THAT THE FISH WAS BROUGHT ALIVE FROM THE WATER OR THAT IT DIED IN THE NET IN THE WATER.

Paper # 46 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Refraining From Sins is Genuine Worship: “Abstaining from sins is the basis of religion. Hence, refrain from sins in order to become the most pious worshipper.Adorn yourself with piety. Do not perform a single good deed without piety. Surely that deed is most acceptable by Allah which is accompanied by piety, even though it may be trifle. As Allah says, “Allah accepts the good
deeds  only from the pious people.”
(Iddat’ud-Dai)
Hence, if you succeed in remaining away from sins, then even if your good deeds are paltry, they would be accepted by the Lord.
& when the Lord of the Worlds accepts a deed it cannot be termed as trifle or paltry.

Question: Kindly, explain to me what I am required to know by way of Sheriah before I start a business of my own & if there is any formula of purchase & sale to be pronounced?

Answer: It is recommended for a business man to learn the rules of daily transactions. In fact, if due to ignorance there are chances that he may contradict the laws of Sheriah, then it is obligatory upon him to learn. Imam Ja’far Sadiq (AS) is reported to have said: “A person who wishes to engage in business should learn its rules & laws, & if he makes any transaction without learning them, he may suffer because of entering into a void or doubtful transactions”.
There is a formula to be pronounced for purchase & sale but it is not compulsory. If the formula is not uttered at the time of transaction, but the seller hands over to the buyer that which he owns in exchange of the money he takes from the buyer, the transaction is in order, & both of them become the owners.

Paper # 47
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Asbaq-ibn-Nubatah has narrated from the first Imam, Amir ul Mu'mineen Ali [a.s.], who said the Prophet [s.a.w.w.] said: "When Allah Almighty & Glorious sends His wrath on a nation & does not punish (them) by it, then; their prices will go up (expensive), their lifetimes will shorten, their merchants will not gain profits, their fruits will not be abundant, their streams will not become brimful, their rain will be withheld from them, & their vicious ones will dominate over them." (Khisal by Saduq, vol. 2, p.360)
Note: The summary of this tradition is that if the destructive penalty does not destroy such a nation, they will be
inflicted with seven afflictions because of their committing sins.

Question: Kindly, explain what constitutes “Backbiting” in the Islamic Shariah & its condemnation? & also please explain the religious terminology “an-namimah”.

Answer: BACKBITING means “speaking ill of a believer in his absence with the purpose of disparaging or not, & no matter whether the alleged shortcoming was related to his body, his lineage, his behaviour, his deeds, his statements, his religion, or his life, & other defects which are [usually] concealed from the people. Similarly, it does not matter whether the description was done by words or by gesture.”
 
The Almighty Allah has condemned backbiting in His Noble Book & has described it such that mind & body feel abhorrence towards it. He said, “& some of you should not backbite the others: would anyone of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother” No, you abhor it.” (49:12)
 
The Prophet (s.a.w.w.) said, “Be careful of backbiting because backbiting is worse than adultery, in that a person who commits adultery can repent & ask forgiveness from God, & Allah can forgive him, whereas Allah will not forgive the backbiter until the person who at the receiving end forgives him.”
 
“AN-NAMIMAH” means sowing dissention by statements like “So & so was saying this & that about you” with the intention of damaging the relationship between the believers or increasing bitterness between them.
 
The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) said, “Those who spread slanderous rumours; those who divide friends are the worst people among you.”
Imam Baqir (AS) said, “The Paradise is forbidden upon the backbiters & those who spread slanderous rumours.
Imam Sadiq (AS) said, “The murderer, the one addicted to intoxicants & one who spreads slanderous rumours will not enter Paradise.
(A Code of Practice for Muslims in the West )

Paper # 48
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Imam Hasan Askari (as) said: An age will approach when the people's face would be laughing (exalting) &  their hearts would be dark, bleak & dirty. The Sunnah to them would be innovation & heresy & innovation would be (considered) Sunnah among them & the transgressor would be honorable & respectable among them. Their chiefs & lords would be ignorant & aggressive ones. &
the religious scholars would be on the threshold of the aggressors & tyrants.
(Mustadrak ul Wasail vol2 pg 322.)

Question: What are the conditions for validity of an oath?

Answer: The conditions for validity of an oath are:
1) A person who takes an oath should be Baligh & sane, & should do so with free will & clear intention. Hence, an oath by a minor, an insane person, an intoxicated person, or by a person who has been coerced to take an oath, will not be in order. Similarly, if he takes an oath involuntarily, or unintentionally, in a state of excitement, the oath will be void.
2) An oath taken for the performance of an act which is Haraam or Makrooh, is not valid. Similarly, an oath for renouncing an act which is Wajib or Mustahab is also void. & if he takes an oath to perform a normal or usual act, it will be valid, if that act has any preference in the estimation of sensible people.
Similarly, if he takes an oath for renouncing a usually permissible act, it will be valid if it is deemed more preferable than its performance, by the sensible people. In fact, in each case, his own judgment about the preferences will be enough to grant validity to the oath, even if other sensible people may not concur.
3) The oath must be sworn by one of those names of the Almighty Allah which are exclusively used for Him, (e.g. 'Allah'). & even if he swears by a name which is used for other beings also, but is used so extensively for Him, that when any person utters that name one is reminded of Him Alone, for example, if he swears by the name Khaliq (the Creator) & Raziq (the Bestower), the oath will be in order.
In fact, if he uses other names or attributes of Allah, which do not remind of Him, but give that connotation when used during an oath, like Samee' (All Hearing) or Baseer (All Seeing), even then the oath will be valid.
4) The oath should be uttered in words, but a dumb person can take an oath by making a sign. Similarly, if a person is unable to utter the words, he may write down the oath, repeating in his mind the intention for it, that will be a valid oath, though as a precaution, he may confirm the oath in other ways as well.
5) It should be possible for him to act upon his oath. & if he was able to act upon the oath when he took it, but became incapable of acting upon it later, the oath becomes nullified from the time he became incapable of acting upon it, provided that he did not incapacitate himself purposely. & the same rule applies if acting upon one's vow, oath, or covenant, involves unbearable hardship.  

Question: If a person breaks his oath, what is he supposed to do?

Answer: If a person takes an oath that he will perform an act (e.g. that he will fast) or will refrain from doing an act (e.g. that he will not smoke), but does not intentionally act according to his oath, he should give Kaffarah for it, which means he should set a slave free, or should fully feed ten indigent persons, or should provide them with clothes. & if he is not able to perform these acts, he should fast for three consecutive days.

Paper # 49
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

No Intercession for Those Who Regard Salāt Unimportant. Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (AS) said: “Our intercession is not for those who consider the Prayers unimportant.” “Our intercession is not for those who considered the Prayers lightly.”
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) has said: “One who considers prayers unimportant is not from me. By Allah, he is not from me.
By Allah, he cannot reach near me at the Haudh al-Kauthar.”
(the cistern in Paradise) (Bihār al-Anwār)

GHUSL Q) Is washing of hair obligatory in Ghusl?

A) While doing Ghusl, one should wash the short hair which are taken as a part of the body. Washing of the long hair is not obligatory. However, if one makes water reach the skin in such a way that those long hair do not become wet, the Ghusl is in order. On the other hand, if it is not possible to make water reach the skin without washing the hair one should wash the hair so that water may reach the body.

Q) Is there any difference in the conditions for the validity of Tartibi Ghusl with the ones stipulated for Wudhu?

A) All the conditions for the validity of Wudhu also apply to the validity of Ghusl except:
(a) For Ghusl it is not necessary that the body be washed downwards.
(b) It is not necessary to wash the body immediately after washing the head & the neck. There is no harm, therefore, if there is a lapse of some time after washing one’s head & neck before washing one’s body. It is not necessary that one should wash one’s head, neck & body in one instance.

Q) In the event one urinates or passes wind (or does any act which would invalidate the Wudhu) while doing Ghusl, is he required to abandon the Ghusl & perform the Ghusl again?

A) No, he does not have to abandon the Ghusl & start all over again. In fact, one can continue with the same Ghusl till completion. However, in this situation, one will have to do Wudhu also, as per obligatory precaution.

Paper # 50
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Imam Sadiq (AS) narrates: “Whoever did the Tasbeeh of Fatima Zahra (AS) before he unfolded his legs (from the position of sitting in obligatory prayer), Allah will forgive him & will make Paradise obligatory upon him.” 
“The beads from the grave of Imam Hussein (AS) are counted as Tasbeeh in the h& of a man, even if he didn't make the
 Tasbeeh (i.e. he only held it). The Tasbeeh of Fatima Zahra (AS) after every obligatory prayer is more loved by Allah
than praying 1,000 Rak’ats every day.”
(Imam Reza (AS) Network.)

PRAYERS Q] Kindly explain to me what does silently mean when the Mas’ala says that it is obligatory for a man & a woman to recite Sura al-Hamd & the other Surah SILENTLY in Dhuhr & Asr prayers & also what is the extent of the voice that should be raised or lowered by a man in the Fajr, Maghrib & Ishaa prayers?

A] In Salaatul Fajr, Maghrib & Ishaa (JAHR), when reciting the two Surahs, a man is required to raise his voice to the extent that the person next to him can hear what is being recited, as in an ordinary conversation between two persons, while in the third Rak’ah of Salaatul Maghrib & the third & fourth Rak’ah of Salaatul Ishaa & all four Rak’ah of Salatul Dhuhr & Asr (IKHFAAT) the person should hear oneself what is being recited. [For women, all their prayers are performed as IKHFAAT].
(answered by: Sheikh Fadhel Al-Sahlani, the U.S. representative of Ayatullah Al-Udhma Al-Hajj Al-Sayyid Ali Husaini Al-Seestani Dama Dhilluhu)

Q] Is it recommended or obligatory for a man to recite Surah al-Hamd & the other Surah loudly while offering Fajr, Maghrib & Isha prayers.

A] It is Wajib, but he should not raise his voice unusually high, as if he were shouting, & if he does so his prayers will be void.

Q] Can a person take wages for teaching a person the act of prayers?

A] To take wages for teaching obligatory acts of prayers is Haraam, as a precaution, & taking wages for teaching Mustahab things is permissible.

Q] Can a person in Namaz carry (not wearing) Najis things with him?

A] Yes, it is permissible for him to carry Najis things, like handkerchief, key & knife. Similarly , if he has a separate Najis dress which he is carrying, it will not affect the validity of his prayers. [Note: It does not include carrying carcass of a Mayta]

Paper # 51
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

The Holy Prophet [saww] said: "The one who sees a wrong action done should prohibit it by his deed, if he is capable, of course; & if he cannot do that, he should prohibit it by his tongue, but if he is not able to do even that, he may forbid it by his heart."
(Wasa'il-ush-Shi'ah, vol. 16, p. 135) Imam Amir ul Mu'mineen Ali [a.s.] said: "He who abandons forbidding what is wrong theoretically & practically (& is indifferent while seeing vices committed) is a moving corpse amongst the living." (Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 100, p. 94)

CONGREGATIONAL PRAYERS Q] Kindly explain to me the advantages obtained & reward earned, giving both worldly & spiritual benefits one derives, when he participates in Congregational Prayers?

A] Marhum Allama Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizvi had listed 6 benefits, details as under: [please, let us recite Sura Fateha for the benefit of his departed soul] 
(a) ISLAMIC EQUALITY.
In the congregation, rich & poor, high & low, all stand shoulder to shoulder. This destroys the haughtiness of the rich & creates self-respect in the poor. The best scene of mankind’s equality comes before us in congregational prayer.
(b) UNITY.
In the congregational prayer, all have one intention, one language & identical actions. All kneel together. All prostrate together. This teaches as the lesson of the unity of the Muslims. 
(c) LOVE & COOPERATION.
People meet with one another in the congregation. They know the problems & worries of each other & try to help each other. New things are known. Mutual love develops. Circle of friendship; is widened. We get an opportunity to perfect our live in the light of others’ experiences.
(d) DISCIPLINE.
While offering prayer in congregation we stand in rows, follow the Imam of Congregation & practice obedience to Command. This instills in us the discipline which is the essential feature of a community’s life. 
(e) PRESTIGE OF ISLAM.
Our Mosques remain thriving – due to prayer in congregation. It enhances the prestige of the Muslims, & the unity of the Muslims overawes the enemies of Islam. (to be continued next week, insha’Allah)

Paper # 52
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Strive more to perform good deeds. However if you cannot perform a good act (at least) do not disobey (the commands of Allah). Because if one lays the foundation of a building & does not spoil it, then, even if the progress is slow, the building will
definitely rise. (Conversely) The person who lays the foundation & at the same time spoils it, then it is sure that
the walls of this building will never be raised.”
(Iddat’ud-Dai, page 235) (continued from last weeek)

(f) LIMITLESS REWARD 
Allah has put a big reward for congregational prayers: 
Our Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w.) & the Imams of Ahlul-Bayt (AS) have laid great stress on Cngregational Payer. 
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) said that if there are only 2 persons (Imam & only one Mamum) in Congregational Prayer, every Rak’at gets the reward of 150 prayers. The reward is increased by the increase in the number of persons. Thus, in a Congregational Prayer of 3 persons, every Rak’at gets reward of 600 persons.

If there are 4, every Rak’at gets reward of  1,200 prayers.
If there are 5, every Rak’at gets reward of  2,400 prayers.
If there are 6, every Rak’at gets reward of  4,800 prayers.
If there are 7, every Rak’at gets reward of  9,600 prayers.
If there are 8, every Rak’at gets reward of  19,200 prayers.
If there are 9, every Rak’at gets reward of  38,400 prayers.
If there are 10, every Rak’at gets reward of 76,800 prayers.

If there are more than 10, then nobody can estimate its reward except Allah. (Marhum Allama Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizvi – Elements of Islamic Studies) 
It is Mustahab that obligatory prayers, especially the daily prayers, are performed in congregation, & more emphasis has been laid on congregational prayers for Fajr, Maghrib & Isha, & also for those who live in the neighborhood of a Mosque, & are able to hears its Adhan. 
It is not permissible to absent oneself from the Congregational Prayers unduly, & it is not proper to abandon Congregational Prayers without a justifiable excuse.

Paper # 53
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

The Holy Prophet [s.a.w.w.] said: "There will come a time for people that: they will not respect their scholars except for their good clothing; they will not hearken to the Qur'an except for the pleasant voice; & they will not worship Allah except for during the
fasting month; there will be no shyness in their women, no patience in their poor ones; & no prosperity for their rich ones,
they will not be contented with a small (portion), & they will not be satiated with abundance. They will strive (only) for
their stomach; their religion is their money (wealth); their women are their Qiblah (direction of worship); & their homes are their mosques; they run away from their scholars just as lambs run away from wolves. Then, when they become like that, the Lord will afflict them with three conditions. At first, He takes the prosperity from their properties. The second is that a cruel ruler will dominate them. The third is that they will pass away from this world without having (true) Faith."
(Waqayi'-ul-'Ayyam, p. 439)

PRAYERS OF A TRAVELLER If a traveler who wants to stay at a place for ten days, has determined at the very outset, that during the period of ten days, he will travel to surrounding places up to the limit of Tarakhkhus or more, & if the period of his going & returning is so brief, that it cannot be considered as infringement of his intention of staying there for 10 days, he should offer full prayers.
But if it is considered as an infringement, then he should pray Qasr. For example, if he is away from that place for a day & a night, then that prolonged period will be breaking the intention, & he will pray Qasr. But if he was away for, say, half a day, returning by the evening, it will not be considered as breaking the intention. Of course, if he travels frequently from that place, giving an impression that he is visiting two or more places, then he will pray Qasr.
Question put forward to Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi based on the above Ruling.
Will the same Mas'ala be applicable, under the same situation, if a traveler who has decided to stay at a place for more than ten days, did not determine at the very outset, but travels to a nearby place of more than 28 miles (return) & returns the same day. For example, he travels in the morning & returns the same evening or he travels in the afternoon & returns at night. As I understand, he will be required to pray Qasr during his traveling but will continue to pray full on his return of stay at a place where he had decided to stay for more than ten days.
Answer given by Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi.
By looking at the ruling, yes, if a person did not have that intention from the very beginning & changes his plan in between, then for the remainder of his stay, he will have to pray Qasr unless the remainder days are 10 days.
Marhum Ayatullah Al-Khoei (a.r.)
If a traveler, who wants to stay at a place for ten days, has determined at the very outset that, during the period of ten days, he will go to different sides of that place up to the limit of Tarakhkhus or more, & if the period of his going & return is, for example, about one or two hours which is not usually inconsistent with ten days' stay, he should offer complete prayers. & if the period is more than that, he should, as a precautionary measure, offer shortened as well as complete prayers, & it that period is full day or the larger part of it, he should offer shortened prayers.

Paper # 54
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Imam Amir ul Mu'mineen Ali [a.s.] told Imam Hassan [a.s.]: "Shall I teach you four traits by which you will be in no need of any medical treatment?" "Yes," Imam Hassan [a.s.] answered. Then, Imam Ali [a.s.] said: Do not sit for food (in order to eat) unless
you are hungry; And, do not leave the (table of) food but you still have an appetite for it; Chew (your food in your mouth) well;
And, when you want to go to bed, (primarily) go to the water-closet to ease nature. If you take these in action, you will be i
n no need of any medical treatment.
(Wasa'il-ush Shi'ah, vol. 24, p. 245)

Q) I shall be grateful if you will kindly enumerate “eating manners” & “manners of drinking water” which has been recommended in Islam? Perhaps you could also include such acts that are considered abominable in table manners.

A) There are certain Mustahab rules to be observed while taking a meal & while drinking water; they are as follows:
EATING MANNERS
(a) Washing both the hands before taking a meal.
(b) After taking a meal, one should wash one’s hands, & dry them with a dry cloth.
(c) One should say Bismillah before starting to eat, & if there are several dishes, it is Mustahab to say Bismillah before partaking of each of the dishes.
(d) One should eat with one’s right hand.
(e) One should eat using three or more fingers & should not eat with two fingers only.
(f) If several persons are sitting together for their meals, everyone of them should partake of the food placed in front of him.
(g) One should take small bits of food.
(h) One should prolong the duration of taking a meal.
(i) One should chew the food thoroughly.
(j) After taking one’s meal one should praise & thank Allah.
(k) One should lick one’s fingers clean after taking food.
(l) One should use a toothpick after taking a meal.
(m) One should collect & eat the food which is scattered on the dining cloth. However, if one takes meal in an open place, like a desert, etc., it is better to leave the food which has fallen aside, so that it may be eaten by the animals & the birds.
(n) One should take one’s meal in the earlier part of the day, & in the earlier part of the night & should not eat during the day or during the night.
(o) After taking one’s meal one should lie on one’s back, & should place one’s right foot on one’s left foot.
(p) One should take salt before & after the meal.
(q) When eating a fruit, one should first wash it before eating.
(to be continued next week, insha-Allah)

Paper # 55
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Imam Husayn-ibn-Ali [a.s.] said: "Seventy rewards is the share of the one who initiates a people see each other,
the initiator of the exchange of greetings receives a greater reward.)
Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 78, p. 120
Imam Kadhim [a.s.] said: "Had people a moderate habit in eating, their bodies would become strengthened.
(Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 66, p. 334) continued from last week

ACTS WHICH ARE UNWORTHY TO DO WHILE TAKING A MEAL.

(a) To eat when one is not hungry.
(b) To eat to one’s fill. It has been reported in the Hadith that over-eating is the worst thing in the eyes of Allah.
(c) To gaze towards others while eating.
(d) To eat food while it is still hot.
(e) To blow on food or drink which one is eating or drinking.
(f) To wait expectantly for something more after the bread or loaf has been served on the dining cloth.
(g) To cut the loaf with a knife.
(h) To scrape off meat stuck to a bone in such a manner that nothing remains on it.
(i) To peel those fruits which are normally eaten with their skin.
(j) To throw away a fruit before one has eaten it fully.
MANNERS OF DRINKING WATER
There are certain acts which are Mustahab while drinking water, they are as follows:
(a) Water should be drunk slowly as if it were sucked.
(b) During daytime, one should drink water while standing.
(c) One should say Bismillah, before drinking water & Al-Hamdulillah after drinking water.
(d) One should drink water when one feels thirsty.
(e) After drinking water, one should remember Imam Husayn (AS) & his Ahlul-Bayt (AS), & curse their murderers.
Note: It is unworthy to drink too much water; to drink water after eating fatty food; & to drink water while standing during the night. It is also unworthy to drink water with one’s left hand; to drink water from the side of a container which is cracked or chipped off, or from the side of its handle.

Paper # 56
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM IMAM ALI (AS) FOUNDATION - LONDON
THE LIAISON OFFICE OF GR& AYATULLAH AL-SAYYID ALI AL-SEESTANI

The Holy Prophet (saww) has said, "Beware! Never belie a Scholar, & do not come in confrontation against him, do not be hostile towards him & love him. For verily their love is the sign of sincerity & hostility to them is the sign of hypocrisy. Beware!
Do not insult a Scholar. Whoever insults him insults me & whoever insults me insults Allah & whoever insults
Allah then his path is to Hellfire. Whoever honours a Scholar, honours me. & whoever honours me, honours Allah.
& whoever honours Allah then his path is towards Paradise "
. (Gunahaane-e-Kabeera)

Question: If after their engagement, the couple intending to get married after one year, enter into a contract of "MUT'AH" (fixed-time marriage) for one year but later decide to enter into a contract of "NIKAH" before the expiry of the Mut'ah Contract, is the Nikah valid without first terminating the Mut'ah Contract?

MUT’AH (FIXED-TIME MARRIAGE / NIKAH (PERMANENT MARRIAGE) Answer: He can gift her the remaining time of the temporary marriage so the muta is over, then they can arrange the permanent marriage.

Supplementary Question # 1:- In the event the Nikah of Permanent Marriage was recited before the expiry date set for Temporary Marriage &  (without first) terminating the remaining period of Temporary Marriage, is the Nikah for Permanent Marriage valid?

Answer :- No, it is not

Suppllemntary Question # 2 :- There are hundreds of such cases, a number of them dating back to 20 years or more, where Nikah for Permanent Marriage was solemnized when the period of their Temporary Marriages (Mut'ah) had not ended (was still valid).
The reason is purely due to ignorance of the knowledge of the relative Mas'ala. WHAT IS THE SOLUTION IN THE CASES DESCRIBED ABOVE? As a Shari'i representaive of Ayatullah Al-Uzama Sayyid Ali Al-Husaini Al-Seestani Dama-Dhilluhu, I look forward to receive URGENTLY your specific guidance as to what is required to be done to restore or maintain the validity of their Permanent Marriage?
Addition to the Question posed above: Does the very intention of converting from Mut'ah to Nikah by both the Bride & Groom & their agreement for the same not constitute the forgiveness of the balance of time in Mut'ah? Or does it have to be uttered?

Answer:- The permanent marriage is void & must be preformed again. 
NOTE: As long as the specified Mut’ah period fixed by the two parties has not expired, Nikah for Permanent Marriage cannot be performed. In other words, if Nikah for Permanent Marriage is performed during the specified validity period of Fixed-Time Marriage (Mut’ah), the Nikah for Permanent Marriage will not be valid. Therefore, before the Nikah for Permanent Marriage is performed, it is necessary to make sure that:
(a) The parties concerned are not currently bound by the contract of Fixed-Time Marriage. 
(b) If they previously entered into contract of Fixed-Time Marriage, the period of their contract has expired. 
(c) If the period of their Fixed-Time Marriage is still valid & effective, then before performing the Nikah for Permanent Marriage, the husb& should be asked to give away as gift to his wife the remaining period of her Fixed-Time Marriage, thus releasing her from her obligations as temporary wife & give her the Dowry (Mahr) fixed for Mut’ah if he has not already done so.

Paper # 57
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM IMAM ALI (AS) FOUNDATION - LONDON
THE LIAISON OFFICE OF GR& AYATULLAH AL-SAYYID ALI AL-SEESTANI

The Prophet (s.a.w.w.) said, "No house has been built in Islam more beloved in the sight of Allah than through marriage." (Wasa'il, vol. 14, p. 3) The Prophet (s.a.w.w.) said, "Two Rak'ats (cycles) prayed by a married person is better than the night-vigil & the fast
of a single person."
(Wasa'il, Vol. 14, p.7) Ibn Fuzzal quotes Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (AS) saying that, "Two Rak'ats prayed by a married person is better than seventy Rak'ats prayed by a single person." (Wasa'il, Vol. 14, p.6) The Prophet (s.a.w.w.) said, "If anyone
likes to meet Allah in purity, then he should meet Him with a wife."
(Wasa'il, Vol. 14, p. 25)

MUT’AH (FIXED-TIME MARRIAGE / NIKAH (PERMANENT MARRIAGE) - continued Supplementary Question # 3:- If, under the situation explained, "the Permanent Marriage is void & must be performed again", would they be considered "Na-Mahram" to each other in the meantime & also what is the position of "intimate contacts" that have taken place between the wife & the husb& as a result of which their children were born. Would their children be considered illegitimate?

Answer:- The children are legal but they still need to perform the marriage contract again Comments of Shaykh Mustafa Jaffer The question thus remains – what happens to those who had failed to terminate their Muta before Nikah – If their Nikah was ‘invalid’, would it necessarily mean that any offspring born are illegitimate??? 
The Fiqhi perspective of this situation is called ‘Al Wat’u bish Shubhah’ – in which, although the Nikah has not been technically recited correctly. It is still considered a valid relationship. This does not, however, absolve the parties from reciting the Nikah again which must be done immediately.

Supplementary Question # 4:- Since the Nikah will have to be performed again, will it also be necessary to fix a new 'MAHR"?

Answer:- Yes, mahr must be mentioned

Supplementary Question # 5:- If after their engagement, a man & a woman entered into a Fixed-Time Marriage (Mut'ah) after having agreed upon the amount of Mahr, but instead of fixing the period of Mut'ah, they agreed upon the validity of their Mut'ah to remain valid until the day their Nikah of Permanent Marriage is performed. In other words, their contract of Mut'ah to be terminated when the Nikah of their Permanent Marraige is performed. Is such a contract of Mut'ah valid?

Answer:- No, it is not valid. Comments of Shaykh Mustafa Jaffer Such a contract is NOT valid. The time specified must be a definite. An uncertain end - one that may also never arise as in cases where engagements are broken - is simply not acceptable.

Paper # 58
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

No Intercession for Those Who Regard Salāt Unimportant Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (AS) said: “Our intercession is not for those who consider the Prayers unimportant.” “Our intercession is not for those who considered the Prayers lightly.” (Bihār al-Anwār vol.3)
It is related from the Holy Prophet (saww) that he said: “One who considers prayers unimportant is not from me. By Allah, he is not from me. By Allah, he cannot reach near me at the Haudh al-Kauthar.” (the cistern in Paradise) (Bihār al-Anwār)

Q) Kindly, advise me the things on which Sajdah is allowed & the things on which Sajdah is not allowed.

A) Turbatul Husayn (AS) is the best thing for performing Sajdah. After it, there are earth, stone & grass, in order of priority.
 
Things on which Sajdah is allowed. 
(a) Sajdah should be performed on earth, & on those things which are not edible nor worn, & on things which grow from earth (e.g. wood & leaves of trees).
(b) It is in order to perform Sajdah on things which grow from the earth, & serve as fodder for animals (e.g. grass, hay, etc.)
(c) It is in order to perform Sajdah on flowers which are not edible, & also on medical herbs which grow from the earth.
(d) It is allowed to perform Sajdah on limestone & gypsum, but the recommended precaution is that Sajdah should not be optionally performed on baked gypsum, lime, brick & baked earthenware.
(e) It is allowed to perform Sajdah on paper, if it is manufactured from allowed sources like wood or grass, & also if it is made from cotton or flax. But if it is made from silk, etc., Sajdah on it will not persmissible.
 
Things on which Sajdah is not allowed. 
(a) It is not permissible to perform Sajdah on things which are used as food or dress (e.g. wheat, barley & cotton, etc.), or on things which are not considered to be parts of the earth (e.g. gold, silver, etc.). & in the situation of helplessness, asphalt & tar will have preference over the non-allowable things.
(b) Sajdah should not be performed on the vine leave, when they are delicate & hence edible. Otherwise, there is no objection.
(c) Performing Sajdah on grass which is eaten in some parts of the world, but not in the rest, but it is classified as edible, will not be permissible.
(d) Sajdah on raw fruits is not allowed.

Paper # 59
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) said: "There comes no night but that the angel of death calls to the dead in the graves & inquires
 what they regret for today when they have vividly seen (& known) this (next life). Then the dead will say: ‘Verily, we regret
 & envy the believers who are in their Mosques & they are praying while we are not; they give alms & we do not;
 theyfast during Ramadhan but we do not; they donate in charity what they have more than the need of their
family  members while we do not .."
Irshad-ul-Qulub, p. 53

RULES REGARDING NAJAASAT Q) If the pages of the Holy Qur’an happen to become Najis, is it obligatory to make the same Paak?

A) To make the script & pages of Holy Qur’an Najis, & violate its sanctity, is undoubtedly Haraam, & if it becomes Najis, it should be made Paak immediately with water. In fact, as an obligatory precaution, it is Haraam to make it Najis even if no violation of sanctity is intended, & it is obligatory that it should be made Paak by washing it with water.

Q) Can a Muslim sell or lend a Najis thing to a fellow Muslim brother or sister?

A) To sell or lend a Najis thing which can be made Paak, has no objection, but the buyer or the borrower must be told about it, particularly in the following two situations:
(i) That if he is not informed, he might contravene the law of Shariah, like, if he wants to eat or drink it.
(ii) That the buyer or borrower will pay heed to the advice. If one knows that it will have no effect, it will not be necessary to tell him.
Note: If a borrowed object becomes Najis, the borrower must inform the owner, provided the two situations mentioned above is observed.
Q) If I see a fellow Muslim eat or drink something Najis, or pray with a Najis dress, is it Wajib for me to draw his attention?
A) It is not necessary to admonish him.
Q) If I am invited for lunch or dinner in a Muslim house & during the meals, I become aware that a particular food served is Najis, is it Wajib for me to bring to the attention of other invited guests?
A) It is not necessary for you as a guest to inform others about it. But if the host comes to know during the meals, that that particular food served is Najis, he should inform the guests about it.
Note: It is Haraam to eat or drink or make others eat or drink something which has become Najis.

Paper # 60
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Sitting an hour in a learned gathering is better in the eyes of God than a thous& nights in each of which a thous& prayers are performed, & better than engaging in battle for the sake of God on thous& occasions, or better than reciting the whole of
the Quran twelve thous& times, or better than a whole year of worship during which one fasts on all days & spends the
 nights in prayer. If one leaves one's house with the intention of gaining knowledge, for every step that he takes, God shall bestow upon him the reward reserved for a prophet, & the reward accorded to a thous& martyrs of [the Battle of] Badr. & for
every word that he hears or writes, a city shall be set aside for him in paradise ...
.Jami’ al-Sa’adat (The Collector of Felicities).

TAHAARAT & NAJAASAT [RITUAL PURITY & IMPURITY Q) If I have a doubt that a particular thing has become najis, shall I act accordingly & consider it najis?

A) A well known religious law says: “Everything is ritually pure for you unless you come to know that it is ritually impure”. This law declares everything to be pure unless one becomes sure that a particular item has become impure. & as long as you are not sure that it has become ritually impure, it is to be considered pure & you can apply all the rules of purity to it without any hesitation or doubt.

Q) If I shake hands with Ahlul Kitaab when either my hands or his hands are wet, does my hands become Najis?

A) The Ahlul Kitaab (that is, the Jews, the Christians & the Zoroastrians) are ritually pure (Taahir) as long as you do not know that they have become ritually impure (Najis) by coming into contact with an impure object. You can follow this ruling when dealing with them.

Q) Where does the domino effect of mutanajjis items stop when it is no longer wet?

A) The first mutanajjis item would make the item that comes into contact with it impure; similarly, the second mutanajjis would make the item that comes into contact with it impure; but the third mutanajjis can no longer make other items impure no matter whether it is wet or dry.
Note: An item which is impure by itself is known ‘ayn najis’ or simply ‘najis’. The item that becomes impure by coming to wet contact with ‘ayn najis’ is known as ‘mutanajjis’, that is impure by secondary reason.

Q) If a dog licks my body or clothes, how do I purify it?

A) It is sufficient to wash it once. However, if the water is qalil, it is necessary to rid it of the water by wringing it.

Q) If I shake hands with Ahlul Kitaab when either my hands or his hands are wet, does my hands become Najis?

A) The Ahlul Kitaab (that is, the Jews, the Christians & the Zoroastrians) are ritually pure (Taahir) as long as you do not know that they have become ritually impure (Najis) by coming into contact with an impure object. You can follow this ruling when dealing with them.

Q) Where does the domino effect of mutanajjis items stop when it is no longer wet?

A) The first mutanajjis item would make the item that comes into contact with it impure; similarly, the second mutanajjis would make the item that comes into contact with it impure; but the third mutanajjis can no longer make other items impure no matter whether it is wet or dry.
Note: An item which is impure by itself is known ‘ayn najis’ or simply ‘najis’. The item that becomes impure by coming to wet contact with ‘ayn najis’ is known as ‘mutanajjis’, that is impure by secondary reason.

Q) If a dog licks my body or clothes, how do I purify it?
A) It is sufficient to wash it once. However, if the water is qalil, it is necessary to rid it of the water by wringing it.

Paper # 62
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

THE INCORRECT PRAYERS Imam Al-Baqir (AS) narrates: One day the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) was seated in the mosque when a person entered & began praying, but in a manner such that neither did he perform his ruku’ (bowing), nor his sujood (prostration) in a correct manner. Observing this, the Messenger of Allah commented: “(This person) pecks as a crow pecks. Should he die & the state of his prayers be as they are now, he shall surely not die upon my religion.” (Al-Mahajjatul Baidha, Volume 1, Page 34)
CARELESSNESS TOWARDS PRAYERS The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him & his progeny) has said: “Prayer is the pillar of your religion & one who intentionally forsakes his prayer has destroyed his religion. & one who does not guard the times of the prayers, shall be made to enter ‘Wayl’, which is a valley in Hell, as Allah, the Exalted, has said: “So woe to the praying ones, who are unmindful of their prayers.” (Biharul Anwar,Volume 82, Page 202)

CONDITIONS FOR DRESS WORN DURING PRAYERS (continued) Q) If a person prays with a Najis dress because of forgetfulness, is his/her prayer valid?
A) If a person forgets that his body or dress is Najis, & remembers during Namaz, or after completing Namaz, as an obligatory precaution, he should offer the prayers again, if his/her forgetting was due to carelessness. & if the time has lapsed, he should give its Qadha.

If it was not due to carelessness, & he remembers after completing the Namaz, his Namaz is valid, but if he remembers during the Namaz, then he should act as explained below:

If he has ample time at his disposal while offering prayers & he realizes during the prayers that his clothes are Najis, & he suspect that they may have been Najis before he started the prayers, he should wash it, or take it off (and in the case of body he should wash that Najasat off his body), provided that in so doing, his prayers does not become invalidated & continue his Namaz to its completion. But if he has no other dress to cover his private parts, or washing the dress or taking it off, or washing that Najasat off his body, may invalidate his Namaz, he should, as an obligatory precaution, repeat his Namaz with Pak clothes.

In the event the time at his disposal is short, under the same circumstances explained above, he should complete his Namaz in the same state, & his Namaz will be valid.
Follow up Question. What is he required to do if he only doubts whether his body or dress is Pak?
A) If he doubts whether his body or dress is Pak, & if he did not find anything Najis after investigation, & prayed, his Namaz will be valid even if he learns after Namaz that his body or dress was actually Najis. But if he did not care to investigate, then as an obligatory precaution, he will repeat the prayers. If the time has lapsed, he will give its qadha.
Follow up Question. What is the status of his prayers if person washes his dress, & becomes sure that it has become Pak, & offers his prayers with it, but learns after the prayers that it had not become Pak?
A) His prayers are in order.
(to be continued next week, insha-Allah)

Paper # 63
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Fulfilling the need of others - Imam Mohammed Baqer (AS) said, "The most beloved action in front of Allah is to please the servant of Allah, feeding him & paying off his debts."
Imam Moosa Kazim (AS) said, "There are some special servants of Allah, the All-knowing, who keep fulfilling the needs of other people. They will be saved from the difficulties of the Day of Judgment. If, someone pleases a believing servant, Allah the All-knowing will make his heart happy on the day of Judgment. (Usul-e-Kafi, vol. 2, Chapter of fulfilling the needs of a believer)

Q) Is the prayer valid if performed wearing clothes purchased with the money from which Khums has not been paid?

A) If a person purchases a dress with the particular sum of money whose Khums has not been paid by him, then Namaz in that dress will amount to the Namaz in a dress which has been usurped.

Note: The dress which a person uses for offering prayers should be Mubah. Hence, if a person knows that it is Haraam to use an usurped dress or does not know the rule on account of negligence, & intentionally offers prayers with the usurped dress, as a precaution, his prayers would be void.

Q) What is the position of prayers if offered by a person who is not aware or forgets that the dress he is wearing is usurped?

A) If a person does not know that his dress is usurped, or forgets about it being usurped, & offers prayers with it, his prayers is in order, provided that he himself is not the usurper. If he himself is the usurper, his Namaz, as a precaution, will be void.

Q) Is the prayer of a person valid if he carries with him during prayers (1) Najis things and/or (2) part from a Najis carcass?
A) (1) It is permissible for a person in Namaz to carry with him Najis things, like Najis handkerchief, key & knife. Similarly, if he has a separate Najis dress which he is carrying, it will not affect the validity of his prayers.
(2) If the person, who offers prayers, carries with him parts from a Najis carcass, which are counted as living parts, like, its flesh & skin – the prayers will be in order.
Follow-up Question: How about wearing small dress like socks which has become Najis?

A) If small dresses belonging to a person offering prayers, like his socks or scalp cap, which would not ordinarily cover his private parts, become Najis, & if they are not made of the parts of a carcass or an animal whose meat is Haraam to eat, the prayers with them will be in order

Paper # 64
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللٌّهِ )ع): مَنْ صَلَّى بِأَذَانٍ وَ إِقَامَةٍ صَلَّى خَلْفَهُ صَفَّانِ مِنَ الْمَلاَئِكَةِ وَ مَنْ صَلَّى بِإِقَامَةٍ بِغَيْرِ أَذَانٍ صَلَّى خَلْفَهُ صَفٌّ وَاحِدٌ مِنَ الْمَلاَئِكَةِ. قُلْتُ لَهُ: وَ كَمْ مِقْدَارُ كُلِّ صَفٍّ. فَقَالَ )ع): أَََقَلُّهُ مَا بَيْنَ الْمَشْرِقِ إِلــى الْمَغْرِبِ وَ أَكْثَرُهُ مَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَ الأَرْضِ‏.

Imam As-Sadiq (a.s.) has said: “One who offers his prayers along with Adhan and Iqamah, two rows of angels pray behind him,
while one who offers his prayers with only the Iqamah and without the Adhan, one row of angels pray behind him.”
The Imam (a.s.) was asked: “And how long is each row?” The Imam (peace be upon him) replied: “At the very minimum, its length is the distance between East and West, while at the maximum, its length is the distance between the earth and the heavens.”
(Wasa’ilush Shi`a, Volume 4, Page 620)

PRAYERS OF A TRAVELER
Q) If a traveler decides to stay at a certain place for 10 days or more, but during those 10 days he travels to a nearby place covering 28 miles or more (return), when he returns his stay is less than 10 days, is he required to pray full or qasr during the remaining days of his stay on his return?

A) If a traveler who wants to stay at a place for ten days, has determined at the very outset, that during the period of ten days, he will travel to surrounding places up to the limit of tarakhkhus or more, and if the period of his going and returning is so brief, that it cannot be considered as infringement of his intention of staying there for 10 days, he should offer full prayers.

But if it is considered as an infringement, then he should pray qasr. For example, if he is away from that place for a day and a night, then that prolonged period will be breaking the intention, and he will pray qasr. But if he was away for, say, half a day, returning by the evening, it will not be considered as breaking the intention. Of course, if he travels frequently from that place, giving an impression that he is visiting two or more places, then he will pray qasr.

Paper # 65
QUESTIONS/ANSWERS FROM CURRENT LEGAL ISSUES (ENGLISH VERSION OF
AL-MUSTAHDATHAT MINAL MASA’IL ASH-SHARI’A)
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS
BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

The Meaning of Wilāyat
It is written in the book Majmaul Bahraen regarding the meaning of the word ‘Wilāyat’: “Wilāyat is the love for Ahl ul-Bayt (a.s.), the natural consequence of which is to follow them in religious matters, to fulfil the obligations laid down on us and to abstain from the things prohibited. Wilāyat is to walk in the footsteps of the Ahl ul-Bayt (a.s.) following their ways in deeds, behaviour and manner of speech.”
Wilāyat therefore means love and obedience. This idea is supported by a tradition from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a.s.)
wherein the Holy Imam (a.s.) has related love with obedience.

Q) Is it permissible to take usury from the unbelievers, especially when one lives in their countries?
A) Yes, *al-adhhar, taking usury from the unbelievers is permissible. *most evident – a level of certainty in reaching a ruling by a Mujtahid.

Q) Some publications have this sentence printed on them, “All rights reserved for the writer or publisher”. Should one observe such prohibition? With the assumption pg heeding the warning, is it permissible to print such material [without taking the publisher’s permission] when social or religious good is at stake?

A) Compliance is not obligatory, yet it is most befitting if permission is sought, especially that of the author. Allah is All-Knowing.

Q) Is it permissible to set aside Sadaqa (legally prescribed alms tax) with the intent of giving it to the poor and could the said money be exchanged for another?

A) Setting the money aside per se would not render it as a Mustahab (voluntary and meritorious act of worship) Sadaqa.

Q) If the money for "Sadaqa" is being kept aside on a regular basis and is distributed to the poors when a good amount accumulates, when the need arises, can one take from it a loan and later on replace with the same currency?

A) Taking a loan from that jar of sadaqa money would not be right. However, changing it in the sense that you have many coins in there and you change it with bills since you need the coins --- that should be okay. (answered by Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi)

Q) What is the ruling on playing Chess using the commonly known equipment? Is the ruling different if the play is conducted on a computer, using symbols?

A) Playing Chess is Haraam Mutlaqan, even though betting is not used. There is no difference between the two methods of play.

Paper # 66
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Obligatory and Recommended Prayers.
Imam Al-Baqir (a.s.) has said: “The prayer that is offered by a person, sometimes half of it ascends upwards, while at other times it
 is only one-third, or one-fourth or one-fifth that ascends. Only that portion of the prayer which the person has offered with concentration and mindfulness of the heart is made to ascend. (And so) the people have been ordered to offer the recommended prayers so that they can make up for what has been left incomplete of their obligatory prayers.”
(Al-Haqa’iq, Page 219)

Q) Is it necessary to keep the Niyyah “Wajib” when performing the Ghusl for Janabat?

A) At the time of doing Ghusl, it is not necessary to have in mind that one is performing an obligatory Ghusl. It is sufficient if one performs the Ghusl with the intention of Qurbat, i.e. complying with Allah’s orders.

Q) Please, explain to me the method of performing Ghusls, both Wajib and Mustahab and relative governing rules?

A) There are two methods of performing Ghusls for both Wajib and Mustahab.

(1) Tartibi (sequential)
In this method, a person should first make a niyyah for Ghusl. Then he/she should first wash his/her head and neck, and thereafter the remaining parts of his/her body. It is better that one washes the right part of the body first and then the left part.

In order to ensure that both the parts (head, neck and remaining parts of the body) have been washed thoroughly, one should, while washing a part, also include some portion of the other part with it.

Note: It is not necessary that the body should be washed downwards from the head. It is also not necessary to wash immediately after washing the head and the neck. There is no harm, therefore, if there is a lapse of some time after washing one’s head and neck before washing one’s body. It is not necessary that one should wash one’s head, neck and body in one instance.

(2) Irtimasi (by submerging the whole body)
Ghusl by way of Irtimasi is either carried out instantly or gradually.

If the Ghusl of Irtimasi is to be done at one instance, then water must reach all parts of the body at one time. However, it is not necessary that the whole body be submerged in water from the very beginning of Ghusl. If a part of the body is outside, and is later submerged with the niyyah of Ghusl, it will be deemed in order.

If one wishes to perform Irtimasi Ghusl gradually, then it is necessary that the whole body is out of water before Ghusl commences. Then one would submerge one’s body gradually in water with the intention of Ghusl.

(to be continued next week, insha-Allah) – Rules about Ghusl

Paper # 67
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OBTAINED FROM ISLAMIC LAWS BOOK OF AYATULLAH AL-UZAMA
SAYYID ALI AL-HUSAINI AL-SEESTANI DAMA DHILLUHU
(unless otherwise indicated)

Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.w.) has said: One who wakes up with his whole attention directed towards the world is cut off from God, & God shall make four qualities to accompany him: endless sorrow, never ending occupation, a neediness which is never relieved,
& a hope which is never achieved.
(Jami'al-Sa'adat (The Collector of Felicities). (continued from last week) Rules about Ghusl.

1) It is not necessary that the entire body of a person should be Pak before Irtimasi or Tartibi Ghusl. So, if the body becomes Pak while diving in water or pouring water over one’s body with the intention of the Ghusl, the Ghusl will be in order.

2) While doing Ghusl, if a part of the body, however small, remains unwashed the Ghusl is invalid. But, it is not obligatory to wash the inside of the ear or nose and other places which are reckoned to be the interior of the body.

3) All things which prevent water from reaching the body should be removed. If a person does Ghusl before ensuring that such obstacles have been removed, the Ghusl will be void.

4) At the time of Ghusl, if one doubts whether there is something on one’s body which would prevent water from reaching the body, one should investigate and satisfy oneself that the obstacle is not there and if it is there he should remove it.

5) While doing Ghusl, one should wash the short hair which are taken as a part of the body. Washing of the long hair is not obligatory. However, if one makes water reach the skin in such a way that those long hair do not become wet, the Ghusl is in order. However, if it is not possible to make water reach the skin without washing those hair one should wash them so that water may reach the body.

6) When a person is in doubt whether he or she has done Ghusl or not, such a person must do Ghusl. However, if doubt arises in the mind after Ghusl as to whether Ghusl was correct or not, then there is no need to do Ghusl again.

7) If one urinates or passes wind (or does any act which would invalidate the Wudhu) while doing the Ghusl, one does not have to abandon the Ghusl and start all over again. In fact, one can continue with the same Ghusl till completion. However, in this situation, one will have to do Wudhu also, as per obligatory precaution.

8) A person who has more than one Ghusl to do can do one Ghusl with the Niyyat of the rest. In fact, one Ghusl with its Niyyat is enough to represent all others.

9) A person who does Ghusl of Janabat should not do Wudhu for the prayers. In fact one can offer prayers without performing Wudhu after all Wajib Ghusls (except the bath for “medium istihaza”).

NOTE: All the conditions for the validity of Wudhu (e.g. the water being pure and not having been usurped) also apply to the validity of Ghusl.

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