Extract Inquiries About Shi'a Islam  Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini

Issues Pertaining to the Practice of the Prayers


Wiping the Feet During Ablution (Wudu)

The followers of the Ahlul Bayt comply by what the Noble Quran

teaches them to do during wudu (ablution) in regards to wiping their

feet, rather than washing them. The Noble Quran commands, “O you

who believe! When you intend (to perform) your prayers, wash your

faces and your hands from the elbows and wipe (by passing wet hands

over) your head and your feet up to the ankles.”[148] Those who practice

the washing of their feet during wudu argue that “your feet” in the

Noble Quran is linked to washing the face, whereas the followers of the

Ahlul Bayt argue that “your feet” is linked to rubbing the head; therefore,

it should be wiped, and not washed.

In support of the latter view, Ibn 'Abbas narrates from the Prophet,

that they used to rub their feet during the time of the Prophet.[149]

Undoubtedly, all Muslims at the time of the Holy Messenger of Allah

used to perform wudu in the same way. No disagreements occurred

between them since the Messenger of Allah was present among them

and all the Muslims used to submit their disagreements to him in accordance

with the Noble Quran, “And if you differ in anything amongst

yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger.”10 The same situation

existed during the time of the first caliph, Abu Bakr (11-13H) and no disagreements

over the performance of wudu have been reported from that

time period either. Similar was the period of the second caliph, 'Umar

ibn al-Khattab (13-23H), except for the fact, that he allowed wiping of the

socks rather than the bare feet as the Noble Quran directs (5:6). However,

the disagreement regarding the performance of the wudu began during

the time of the third caliph, 'Uthman ibn Affan (23-35H) when he began

to wash his feet instead of wiping them.[150] Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, in his

book Kanz al-'Ummal[151] mentions that the third caliph, 'Uthman ibn

Affan (during his caliphate) was the first to differ in performing the

wudu. In Sahih al-Muslim[152] and Kanz al-'Ummal,[153] 'Uthman ibn

Affan says that during his caliphate, some of the companions of the

Prophet who performed their wudu differently than himself attributed

their practice to the Prophet. More than twenty narrations—all narrated

by the third caliph—are about his new manner of performing wudu.

These traditions indicate his establishment of the new method.

Some prominent Muslim historians, such as Ibn Abi al-Hadid al-

Mu'tazili[154] regard this trend as nothing new in the tradition of the

third caliph since he was known for his numerous innovations (into the

faith of Islam). There is a near consensus among the Muslim historians


that the third caliph, 'Uthman was murdered by Muslim revolutionaries

in 35H. because of political and financial issues. However, other Muslim

historians interpret the third caliph's introductions (regarding some of

the religious rules during the last six years of his caliphate) as a departure

from the tradition of the first and second caliphs. The majority of the

Muslims during his caliphate looked at the third caliph as a follower of

the first and second caliphs, and the implementer of their practices. Since

the third caliph witnessed numerous introductions during the time of

the second caliph, and saw himself religiously and intellectually no less

than his predecessors[155], thus he decided to depart from the previous

policy and have an independent opinion regarding different political,

financial, and jurisprudential issues such as, washing the feet during


Although some people today consider washing the feet to lead to better

cleanliness and hygiene than merely wiping the feet; however, Allah

the Almighty who legislated all the acts of worship, including the wudu,

is more aware of the advantages and disadvantages of washing or wiping

the feet. It has been narrated that Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib said, “If religion

was according to human opinion, the bottom of the foot would be

more worthy of wiping than the top. But I saw the Messenger of Allah

wiping the top of his feet.”[156]


Combining the Prayers

All Muslims agree that there are five mandatory prayers throughout the

day and night. They also agree that these five daily prayers have specific

times in which they must be performed, and that combining the prayers

is, at least, sometimes permissible (saying the dhuhr (noon) prayer then

immediately followed by the asr (afternoon) prayer, or saying

the maghrib (post-sunset) prayer immediately followed by theisha (night)

prayer). The Maliki, Shafi´i, and Hanbali schools of thought agree that

combining of the prayers while traveling is permitted, but they do not allow

combining of the prayers for other reasons. The Hanafi school of

thought permits combining of the prayers only on the day of Arafat.

Whereas the ImamiShi'a school of thought, allows combining of the prayers

in all cases—while traveling or not, for any other reason, during war

and peace, while the weather is rainy or not, and so on. The real dispute

is as to when the exact beginning and end of the prayer times are. Thus,

the dispute must be referred to the Noble Quran and narrations of the

Prophet Muhammad.

Three verses in the Noble Quran speak of the times for the prayers. Allah,

the Exalted says, “Perform the prayers from mid-day until the darkness

of the night, and recite the Quran in the early dawn. Verily, the recitation

of the Quran in the early dawn is ever-witnessed.”[157] “Midday”

refers to the shared time for the dhuhr and asr prayers, “the darkness

of the night” refers to the shared time of the mahrib and isha prayers,

and “early dawn” refers to the fajr (dawn) prayer. The Noble Quran

clearly and simply states that there are three main times for the five daily

prayers. Although the prayers are five, they fall into three main periods

of time. The great Sunni scholar, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi understood this interpretation

from this verse also.[158] Of course, the prayers must be

done in order; the dhuhr prayer must be performed before the asr prayer,

and the maghrib prayer must be performed before the isha prayer.

The Noble Quran also says, “And perform the prayers at the two ends

of the day, and in some hours of the night. Verily, the good deeds remove

the evil deeds. That is a reminder for the mindful.”[159] Muslim

jurists and Quran commentators agree that this verse refers to the five

compulsory prayers, as the Noble Quran states, it determines the timing

of the prayers—the three main times; two of them at the “ends of the

day” and the third in “some hours of the night.” The first, “ends of the

day” is the time of the morning prayer, the second, “ends of the day” begins

at noon and ends at sunset (making this the time for the dhuhr and

asr prayers), and the “hours of the night” is the third main time in which

the maghrib and isha prayers should be recited; these prayers extend

from the beginning of the night until midnight.

A similar division of times is expressed in a third verse, “So bear with

patience (O Muhammad) all that they say, and glorify the praises of your

Lord before the rising of the sun, and before its setting, and during a part

of the night, also glorify His praises, and so likewise after the prostrations.”[

160] As in the previous verse, the jurists and the commentators

also agree that this verse refers to the times of the five mandatory prayers;

in addition to dividing the time for the prayers into three segments:

first, the time from dawn until sunrise which is the time for the dawn

prayers (fajr); second, the time from noon until sunset, which is the time

for the noon and afternoon prayers; and third, the “part of the night”

which extends from after sunset until midnight, which is the time for the

evening and night prayers. Referring to the last part of the cited verse

(50:39-40), “And so likewise after the prostration,” according to the commentators,

refers either to the nawafil (recommended) prayers, or specifically

to salat al-layl (the midnight prayer) which are among the highly

recommended prayers.

Imam al-Bukhari and others report that the Prophet used to combine

his prayers into three sections of time, “The Messenger of Allah observed

the noon and afternoon prayers together and the sunset and night prayers

together without being in a state of fear or while on a journey.”[161]

Imam Muslim narrates the same hadith and adds that when the Prophet

was asked by Ibn al-'Abbas why he authorized combining the two prayers,

the Prophet replied that he did not want to cause difficulty for his

nation.[162] In the same book, Ibn al-'Abbas himself narrates that they

used to combine the two prayers during the time of the Prophet.[163]

Therefore, both the Noble Quran and the tradition of the Prophet indicate

clear authorization and permission to combine the two prayers

without any particular reason. It also asserts that Allah the Merciful

made His religion easy for the believers.


The Adhan (Call to Prayer); “Hayya ‘ala Khayril ‘Amal”

(Come to the Best of Deeds)

The entire adhan (call to prayer) was taught to the Prophet Muhammad

by Allah on the night he ascended to Heaven, and the prayers were

made obligatory on him that same night.[164] The original adhan taught

to him contained the phrase ”hayya 'ala khayril 'amal” (come to the best

of deeds); however, at the time the Islamic state was expanding, the

second caliph, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab thought that this phrase would discourage

people from performing jihad (defense fighting) and thus

ordered it to be removed from the adhan. Imam Muslim narrates, on the

authority of Ibn Mas'ud that the Prophet had commanded the Muslims

to say in the adhan and iqaama (the call that signals the beginning of the

prayer) ”hayya 'ala khayril 'amal,” but once 'Umar assumed authority he

dropped that phrase.[165] He also says that Ali ibn Abi Talib and his followers,

as well as, 'Abdullah, the son of 'Umar did not drop this


'Umar ibn al-Khattab has been narrated to have said, “O people, three

things existed during the time of the Messenger of Allah that I prohibit

and make unlawful and will punish for, they are: mut'at al-hajj, mut'at

al-nisa, and 'hayya 'ala khayr al-'amal.' (the Mut'ah of the Hajj, mut'ah of

the woman and 'hasten towards the best of deeds')”[167]

Malik ibn Anas narrates the story of how 'hayya 'ala khayr al-'amal'

(Hasten towards the best of deeds) was replaced by ”al-salat khayrun

min al-nawm” (The prayers are better than sleep.) Anas said, “The

mu'adhdhin (the person making the call to prayer) came to 'Umar ibn al-

Khattab to announce the morning prayers and found him asleep, so he

said to him, 'al-salat khayrun min al-nawm' (prayer is better than sleep).

'Umar liked this sentence very much, so he ordered that it be included in

the adhan for the morning prayers.”[168] Imam Muslim and Abu

Dawud also concur that this sentence was not part of the adhan during

the time of the Prophet, and Tirmidhi asserts that 'Umar was the one

who added it.[169]

Some people may wonder why the Shi'a, in the adhan, include:“

Ashhadu anna Ali`yan waliuAllah” (“I testify that Ali is the close

friend of Allah”) after the first two testimonies. All the Shi'a jurists and

scholars have a consensus that this sentence is not an obligatory part of

the adhan; nonetheless, saying it is a tradition. However, if anyone says

it in the adhan, believing it to be obligatory, then his or her adhan will

become void. The Shi'as believe it began during the time of the Prophet,

on the day of Ghadir after he appointed Imam Ali as his successor, during

which the Muslims paid their allegiance to Imam Ali, and Abu Dharr

al-Ghifari recited the adhan and added the phrase:“Ashhadu anna Ali`yan

wali Allah.” Afterwards, the Muslims came to the Prophet and said that

they had heard something new in the adhan. When the Prophet asked

what they had heard, they replied, we heard the phrase, ”Ashhadu anna

'Aliyan wali Allah” in the adhan. The Prophet asked them whether they

had not just acknowledged this same phrase to Imam Ali when they

gave their allegiance (bay'ah) to him.


Crossing the Hands in Prayer (Takfir24)

The Messenger of Allah has said, “Perform your prayers as you see me

performing my prayers.” Therefore, crossing the hands makes the prayers

void in the Imamiyyah (those who believe in the 12 imams who succeeded

the Noble Prophet as appointed by Allah) school of thought,

since it is deemed as the habit of the Magians[170] (Majus).[171]

However, in the Hanafi and Shafi´i schools, it is recommended

(mustahhab) to cross the hands. Nevertheless, the two schools differ

slightly in the hand posture; the Shafi´i school says to cross the right

hand on top of the left above the belly, while the Hanafi says to hold the

hands below the belly.


Concluding the Prayers with Three Takbirs (Saying: AllahuAkbar!)

The Messenger of Allah used to conclude his prayers with three takbirs.

Imam Muslim narrates this fact on the authority of Ibn al-'Abbas who

says, “We knew that the Prophet had concluded his prayers when he

would recit the three takbirats.”[172]


Prostrating on Earth (Turbah)

Prostrating on the earth (turbah) or nature made material does not in any

way imply worshipping the earth or stone which one is prostrating

upon. As a practice, it has a firm foundation in the tradition of the

Prophet, which the Noble Quran teaches the Muslims to follow in all


Imam al-Bukhari narrates that the Prophet said, “I have been given

five things which were not granted to anyone (any other prophet) before


1. Every apostle was sent particularly to his own people, whereas I

have been sent to all people - red and yellow.

2. The spoils of war have been made lawful for me, and these were

never made lawful for anyone before me.

3. The earth has been made pure and a place of prostration for me, so

whenever the time of prayer comes for any one of you, he should pray

wherever he is (upon the ground).

4. I have been supported by awe (to cause fear and intimidation to

enter the hearts of the Prophet's enemies) from the distance (which if

covered, would take one month to cross).

5. I have been granted intercession.[173]

In regards to the subject, the third narration very clearly states that the

earth (the dust and the stones) is a place of prostration. In the history of

Islam, the Prophet Muhammad has shown that his masjid in Madina had

no floor covering; it was only dust, although numerous types of rugs and

furnishings existed at that time. Since this masjid did not have a carpet or

any other type of floor covering thus when it rained the floor of the

masjid would turn into mud; but still, the Muslims prostrated on the

mud and did not put any carpets or rugs down. Many other narrations

are as follows:

Abu Sa´id al-Khidri, a companion of the Prophet reported, “I saw with

my own eyes, the Messenger of Allah had on his nose the traces of rain

and mud.”

Imam al-Bukhari narrates that when the Prophet used to do the prayers

in his own room, he would pray on khumra (a solid piece of dirt or a

piece of straw).

The Messenger of Allah performed his prayer and I (one of the wives

of the Prophet) was lying down opposite to him while I was in menses.

Sometimes his clothes touched me when he prostrated, and he used to

prostrate on khumra.[174]

One of the wives of the Prophet said, “I never saw the Prophet (while

prostrating) prevent his face from touching the earth.”[175]

Wa´il, one of the Prophet's companions narrates, “I saw (that) the

Prophet, once he prostrated touched his forehead and nose on the


Other narrations say that the Prophet prohibited the Muslims from

prostrating on materials other than the earth. One day he saw a man

prostrating on some cloth from his turban. The Prophet pointed to him

and told him to remove his turban and to touch his actual forehead on

the ground.[177]

Despite the immense heat of the ground, the Prophet and his companions

used to prostrate on it. A great companion of the Prophet, Jabir ibn

'Abdullah al-Ansari says, “I used to pray the noon prayers with the Messenger

of Allah and I used to take a bunch of pebbles in my palm to cool

them because of the enormous heat so I could prostrate on them.”[178]

Another companion of the Prophet, Anas ibn Malik narrates, “We

used to pray with the Messenger of Allah during the enormous heat, and

one of us would take pebbles in our hands and once they were cool, put

them down and prostrate on them.”[179]

Al-Khabbab ibn al-Arth, another companion of the Prophet says, “We

complained to the Messenger of Allah about the intensity of the heat of

the ground and its effects on our foreheads and palms (during prostration)

but the Prophet did not excuse us from praying on the


Abu Ubaidah, also a companion of the Prophet narrates that the companion

ibn Mas'ud never prostrated (on anything) except on the

earth,[181] while the companion 'Ibada ibn al-Samit has been narrated to

have pushed back his turban to allow his forehead to touch the


During the times of the first, second, third, and fourth caliphs the

Muslims used to prostrate on the dust. Abu Umayyah narrates that the

first caliph, Abu Bakr used to prostrate and pray on the earth.[183]

Prostrating on the earth was also the habit of the tabi'in (those who did

not see the Prophet but met his companions). Masruq ibn al-Ajda', a

prominent tabi'in and a faithful jurist, and a student of 'Abdullah ibn

Mas'ud made for himself a tablet from the dirt of Madina and used it to

prostrate on, taking it with him on his trips, especially when he boarded


The people closest to the Prophet, the Ahlul Bayt were also very firm

in their practice of prostrating on the earth, and in doing so, were

following the tradition of their grandfather, the Messenger of Allah.

Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, the sixth Imam said, “Prostration is not permitted

except on the earth and whatever grows from it except on those things

that are eaten or made of cotton.”[185] When he was asked whether having

one's turban touch the earth instead of the forehead was acceptable,

he replied that this was not sufficient unless the forehead actually

touched the earth.23 His companion and student, Hisham ibn al-Hakam

asked him whether all seven positions (forehead, hands, knees, and big

toes) needed to touch the earth during prostration, Imam al-Sadiq

replied that as long as the forehead touched the earth, there was no need

for the other six areas to touch the earth. Thus, people can use carpets or

prayer rugs to pray on as long as the forehead itself touches the earth.

However, prostrating by putting the forehead on a piece of cloth, carpet,

nylon, sheet, wool, or anything that is not a product of the earth

(excluding items which are eaten or worn; things upon which prostration

is not permissible) would not be considered prostrating on the earth.

Apart from the issue of validity of prostration, prostrating on the earth

has very significant indications and lessons for a believer. Prostrating itself

is a gesture of humiliation and insignificance before the Almighty,

and if it is done on the dirt then it will have more effect than prostrating

on a carpet. The Messenger of Allah said, “Make your faces dusty and

cover your noses with dust.”[186] When Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq was asked

about the philosophy behind prostrating on the earth, he replied,

“Prostration is surrendering and humiliation to the Almighty. Therefore,

it shouldn't be on that which is worn and eaten because people are slaves

of what they eat and wear, and prostration is the worshipping of Allah,

so one should not put his forehead during prostration on that which is

worshipped by the people (food and clothing) and that which conceits


Of course, every rule has its exception. Certain narrations allow people

in times of emergency, such as imprisonment or being in a place (e.g., a

ship or an airplane) in which neither earth nor a piece of wood, leaf, or

paper is available to prostrate on. Therefore, in these cases, people can

prostrate either on the hem of their clothing or on carpet, for the Messenger

of Allah has said, “Nothing has been forbidden to man, except that

Allah permits it for whoever is compelled (in times of emergency).”


Why Pray on the Soil of Karbala?

The followers of Ahlul Bayt prefer to prostrate on the earth of Karbala,

where the great martyrs are buried and which holds the memory of the

great sacrifice of Imam Husayn, grandson of the Prophet. They do not

cherish the physical soil so much as the principles of Imam Husayn and

his great revolution which saved Islam from corruption, deterioration,

and the tyranny of the wrongdoers. Many imams from the school of

Ahlul Bayt have narrated that prostrating on the soil of Karbala penetrates

the seven veils separating the person praying from Allah, the


Conventional wisdom also determines that some lands are better than

others. This fact is normal and rational, and has been agreed upon by

many nations, governments, authorities, and religions. Such is the case

with places and buildings related to Almighty Allah. They enjoy a special

status whose injunctions, rights, and obligations are sanctioned and

safeguarded. For example, the Ka'bah has an injunction of its own, as

does the Masjid of the Prophet in Madina.

The land of Karbala is similar, for the Prophet has been recorded to

have taken the soil from it, smelled it, and kissed it. The wife of the

Prophet, Um Salamah also carried a piece of the soil of Karbala in her

clothes. The Messenger of Allah has been narrated to have told Um Salamah,

“Jibrail has come to me and informed me that some of my nation

will assassinate my son Husayn in Iraq, and he brought me a piece of

that soil.” He gave that piece of soil to his wife and said, “When it turns

into fresh blood, then know that my son Husayn has been murdered.”

Um Salamah took the soil and put it in a bottle. When Imam Husayn left

for Iraq in 61H, she checked the bottle every day. One day, on the 10th of

Muharram, she came to the bottle and saw that the dust had turned into

fresh blood, and started screaming. The women of Bani Hashim gathered

around her and asked what was wrong; she told them that Husayn had

been killed. When they asked her how she knew this, she narrated the

story, and they joined her in lamentation and crying for Imam


Hisham ibn Muhammad has said, “When water was released to overwhelm

and obliterate the grave of Husayn, it dried after forty days, and

the grave was completely left without any trace. A Bedouin from Bani

Asad came and sampled the soil, one handful after another, smelling it

each time, until he was able to identify the grave of Husayn, whereupon

he wept and said, “May my parents be sacrificed for you! How sweet


you smelled when you were alive, and how sweet your soil smells even

when you are dead!” Then he wept again and composed this poem, “Out

of enmity they wanted to obliterate his grave, but the good smell of the

soil led to the grave.”[189]

The first to prostrate on the soil of Karbala (where Imam Husayn was

beheaded and buried) was his son, Ali ibn al-Husayn Zayn al-Abidin,

the fourth Imam of the school of Ahlul Bayt, the great-grandson of the

Messenger of Allah. Immediately after he buried his father in Karbala, he

took a handful of the soil, made the earth into a solid piece and used it to

prostrate upon. After him, his son Imam Muhammad al-Baqir and his

grandson, Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq did the same. Imam Zayn al-Abidin and

Imam al-Sadiq made prayer beads from the burial dust of Imam Husayn,

and Imam al-Sadiq narrates that the daughter of the Messenger of Allah,

Lady Fatima al-Zahra used to carry prayer beads made from twisted

wooden threads with which she would praise and glorify Allah, the Exalted.

But after Hamzah ibn 'Abdul Muttalib was killed in the Battle of

Uhud, she took the soil from his grave and made prayer beads from it

and used them to glorify Allah. People learned her habit and did the

same when Imam Husayn was martyred; taking the soil of his grave and

using it to make prayer beads.


Prayers for the Dead (Salat al-Mayyit)

During the time of the Prophet, the prayers over the newly deceased had

five takbirs (units). Ahmad ibn Hanbal narrates from 'Abd al-A'la, “I

prayed behind Zayd ibn Arqam over a dead body, and I did the takbirat

five times.” A man stood behind him and held his hand and asked

whether he had forgotten. 'Abd al-A'la replied, “No, but I prayed behind

Abul-Qasim Muhammad and he did five takbirat, and I would not do

other than that.”[190]

For reference, al-Suyuti mentions the name of the companion who changed the number of takbirs from five to four.[191]


Tarawih Prayers

Imam al-Bukhari narrates from 'Abdullah ibn 'Abd al-Qari, “In one of

the nights of the month of Ramadan, I went to the masjid with 'Umar ibn

al-Khattab. We saw the people in scattered groups, with individuals

praying by themselves. Others were praying with a group praying behind

them. 'Umar looked at me and said, 'In my opinion, if I can bring all

these people together behind one who recites, then it would be better.'

So, he gathered them and made 'Ubay ibn Ka'ab lead them in prayers. I

went with him another night to the masjid, and saw people all praying

together behind a person reciting. 'Umar looked at them and said,

'Ni'mat al-bid'ah hadhihi ('This is a good innovation').'”[192]

In the Shi'a tradition, the recommended prayers (al-nawafil) during

the month of Ramadan are performed individually.


[148] Noble Quran, 5:6

[149] al-Shahrastani, Wudhu’ al-Nabi

[150] Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 1, 52; Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, 204

[151] al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal, Hadith 26890, Vol. 9,


[152] Sahih Muslim Vol. 1, 207-208

[153] al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal, Hadith 26797, Vol. 9,


[154] Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, Vol. 1, 199-200

[155] al-Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 4, 339

[156] Abu Shaybah, al-Musannatf, Hadith 6, Vol. 1, 30; Sunan Abi

Dawud, Hadith 164, Vol. 1, 42

[157] Noble Quran, 17:78

[158] Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Tafsir, Vol. 5, 428

[159] Noble Quran,11:114

[160] Noble Quran, 50:39-40

[161] Sahih al-Bukhari, “Book on Times of Prayers” Hadith 510

and 529, “Book on Friday Prayer” Hadith 1103; Sahih Muslim, “Book on

the Prayer of Travellers” Hadith 1146; al-Tirmidhi, “Book on Prayer”

Hadith 172; al-Nisa’i, “Book on Timings” Hadith 585, 597-599; Abu

Dawud, “Book on Prayer” Hadith 1024, 1025, and 1027; Musnad Ahmad

ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1:217, 221, 223, 251, 273, 283, 285, 346, 349, 351, 354, 360,


and 366; Malik, “Book on Shortening the Prayer while Travelling”

Hadith 300

[162] Sahih Muslim, “Book of the Prayers of Travellers” Ch. 6,

Hadith 50-54

[163] Sahih Muslim, Ch. 6-8, Hadith 58-62

[164] al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-Ummal, Hadith 397, Vol. 6; al-

Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. 3; 1

[165] Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, 48

[166] al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 4, 56

[167] Sharh al-Tajrid; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1, 49

[168] Malik ibn Anas, Kitab al-Muwatta’, Ch. “Adhan”

[169] Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 1, 64

[170] Magians are people who consider fire as the purest and

noblest element, and worship it as an emblem of Allah. They are mentioned

in the Noble Quran, 22:17

[171] al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, Vol. 3, 336; al-Tusi, al-Ta’dhib, Vol. 2, 84

and 309

[172] Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, 219

[173] Sahih al-Bukhari, “Book on Making Ablutions with Sand or

Earth” Hadith 323, “Prayer”, Hadith 419, “The Prescribed Fifth Portion”

Hadith 2890; Sahih Muslim, “Book on masjids and Places of Performing

Prayers,” Hadith 810; al-Nisa’i, “Book on Washing and the Dry Ablution”,

Hadith 429, “masjids” Hadith 728; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal,

Vol. 3, 305; al-Darami, “Book on Prayer”, Hadith 1353

[174] Sahih al-Bukhari, “Book on Menstruation”, Hadith 321,

“Book on Prayer,” Hadith 366, 487, and 488; Sahih Muslim, “Book on

Prayer”, Hadith 797; al-Nisa’i, “Book on masjids”, Hadith 730; Abu

Dawud, “Book on Prayer”, Hadith 560; Ibn Majah, “Book on Immediate

Call for Prayer”, Hadith 1018; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 6, 330,

331, 335, and 336; al-Darami, “Book on Prayer” Hadith 1338

[175] Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 6, 58; al-Muttaqi al-Hindi,

Kanz al-Ummal, Vol. 4, 212

[176] al-Jassas, Ahkam al-Quran, Vol. 3, 36; Musnad Ahmad ibn

Hanbal, Vol. 4, 315

[177] al-Hiythami, Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Vol. 2, 105; Ibn Hajar, al-Isabah

li Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 2, 201

[178] Sahih al-Nisa’i, Vol. 2, 204; al-Hiythami, Sunan al-Bayhaqi,

Vol. 1, 439;/ Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 3, 327

[179] al-Hiythami, Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Vol. 2, 105; Nayl al-Awtar,

Vol. 2, 268


[180] al-Hiythami, Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Vol. 2, 106

[181] Majma ‘al-Zawa’id, Vol. 2, 57

[182] al-Hiythami, Sunan al-Bayhaqi; Sunan al-Kubra. Vol. 2, 105

[183] al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-Ummal; al-Hiythami, Sunan al-

Bayhaqi; Sunan al-Kubra, Vol. 4, 212, Vol. 2

[184] Ibn Sa‘ad, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 6, 53

[185] Wasa’il al-Shi‘ah, Vol. 3, 592

[186] al-Targhib wal-Tarhib, Vol. 1, 581

[187] Wasa’il al-Shi‘ah, Vol. 3, 591

[188] al-Suyuti al-Shafi‘i, al-Khasa’is, Vol. 2, 125; al-Maghazali, al-

Manaqib, 313; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 6, 294; al-Dimishqi,

Tarikh al-Islam, Vol. 3, 11; al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah, Vol. 6, 230; Ibn ‘Abd

Rabbah, al-‘Aqd al-Farid, Vol. 2, 219; al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-Ummal,

Vol. 5, 110

[189] Tarikh ibn Asakir, Vol. 4, 342; Hafiz al-Kanji, al-Kifayah, 293

[190] Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 4, 370; Sahih Muslim,

“Prayers over the Graves”; Sahih al-Nisa’i, “Kitab al-Janazah”

[191] al-Suyuti, al-Kamil, Vol. 15, 29; al-Suyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa’,


[192] Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 1, 342