People on whom fasting is not obligatory
1734. Fasting is not obligatory on a person who cannot fast because of old age, or for whom fasting causes extreme hardship. But in latter case, he should give one mudd food to a poor person for every fast.
1735. If a person who did not fast during the month of Ramadhan owing to old age, becomes capable of fasting later, he should, on the basis of recommended precaution, give the qadha.
1736. Fasting is not obligatory on a person who suffers
from a disease which causes excessive thirst, making it unbearable, or full
of hardship. But in the latter case, that is, of hardship, he should give one
mudd of food to poor, for every fast.
At the same time, as a recommended precaution, such a person may not drink water in a quantity more than essential. If he recovers later, enabling him to fast, then as a recommended precaution, he should give qadha for the fast.
1737. Fasting is not obligatory on a woman in advanced stage of pregnancy, for whom fasting is harmful or for the child she carries. For every day, however, she should give one mudd of food to poor. In both the cases, she has to give qadha for the fasts which are left out.
1738. If a woman is suckling a child, whether she is
the mother or a nurse, or suckles it free, and the quantity of her milk is small,
and if fasting is harmful to her or to the child, it will not be obligatory
on her to fast. And she should give one mudd of food per day to poor.
In both the cases, she will later give qadha for the fasts left out. But this rule is specifically applicable in a circumstance where this is the only way of feeding milk to the child - (as an obligatory precaution). But if there is an alternative, like, when more than one woman offer to suckle the child, then establishing this rule is a matter of Ishkal.