Rules of Istihaza
400. In the case of little istihaza the a woman should perform separate Wudhu for every prayer and should, as a recommended precaution, wash or change the pad. And if some blood is found on the outer part of her private parts she should make it Pak with water.
401. In the case of Mutawassita, it is an obligatory precaution for
a woman to make one Ghusl everyday for her daily prayers, and she should act
accordingly to the rules of little Istihaza as explained in the foregoing rule.
If the state of Istihaza began before or just at the time of Fajr prayers, she
should do Ghusl before offering Fajr prayers.
If she does not do Ghusl intentionally or forgetfully, she should do Ghusl before Zuhr and Asr prayers. And if she misses even that, then she should do Ghusl before praying Maghrib and Isha. This she would do regardless of whether bleeding continues or stops.
402. In the case of excessive bleeding the woman should change, as an
obligatory precaution, the cotton or pad tied to her private parts or make it
Pak with water. It is also necessary that she should do one Ghusl for Fajr prayers,
one for Zuhr and Asr prayers and once again for Maghrib and Isha prayers.
She should offer Asr prayers immediately after Zuhr prayers and if she allowed any lapse of time between them, she should do Ghusl again for Asr prayers. Similarly if she keeps any time gap between Maghrib and Isha prayers, she should do Ghusl again for Isha prayers.
All these rules apply when bleeding is so excessive that it continues soiling
the pad etc. But if it takes longer to soil the cotton or pad, and a woman has
enough time to pray one or more Namaz in between, then, as per obligatory precaution,
she would change the pad or wash it to make Pak and then do Ghusl only when
the cloth covering the pad or cotton is fully soaked.
For example, if a woman praying Namaz of Zuhr finds out that the cloth is fully soaked again before the prayers of Asr, she would do Ghusl for Asr prayers. And if she finds that the flow of blood is slow enough to allow two or more prayers to be offered before the cotton or cloth is totally soiled with blood, there will be no need for Ghusl before the ensuing prayer.
For example, if she finds that there is enough time to offer even Maghrib and Isha prayers, before the cloth is fully soaked, she would pray Maghrib and Isha without Ghusl. In every case, the Ghusl in excessive Istihaza does not require Wudhu after it.
403. If istihaza blood is seen before the time for prayers has set in, and the woman has not performed Wudhu or Ghusl for that bleeding, she should perform Wudhu or Ghusl at the time of prayers, even though she may not be mustahaza at that time.
404. A woman whose Istihaza is medium should first do Ghusl and then Wudhu, as per obligatory precaution. But if a woman with excessive Istihaza wishes to do Wudhu, she should do so before the Ghusl.
405. When a woman who had little Istihaza finds out after Fajr prayers that her Istihaza has developed into medium one, she will have to do Ghusl for Zuhr and Asr prayers. And if that change occurs after Zuhr, Asr prayers, then she will do a Ghusl for Maghrib and Isha prayers.
406. If a woman finds out after Fajr prayers that her little or medium Istihaza had developed into an excessive one, and remained in that state, then she should follow the directives given in rule no. 402 in respect of Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers.
407. As explained in rule 402, a woman in excessive Istihaza must ensure that there is no time gap between Ghusl and the prayers. Therefore, if such a gap occurs because of doing Ghusl earlier, then that Ghusl will be void, and the woman will have to do Ghusl again. This rule applies to those also who are in medium Istihaza.
408. Apart from the rules pertaining to the daily prayers which have
been explained earlier, a woman in little and medium Istihaza must do Wudhu
for all other prayers, Wajib or Mustahab. But if she desires to repeat, as a
precautionary measure, the daily prayers which she has already offered or if
she wishes to offer once again with congregation the prayers which she had offered
individually, she should perform all the acts which have been mentioned with
regard to Istihaza.
In the case of Namaz of Ihtiyat, "forgotten sajdahs", "forgotten tashahud" which are performed immediately after the prayers it is not necessary for her to follow the rules of Istihaza. Similarly, no rules of Istihaza will apply for performing Sajda-e-Sahv at any time.
409. After the bleeding of a mustahaza woman has stopped, she should follow the rules of istihaza only for the first subsequent prayers which she may offer. For further prayers which follow, the rules of Istihaza would not be necessary.
410. If a woman does not know what kind of Istihaza she has, she should insert into herself some cotton and wait a while to ascertain. And when she knows which kind of Istihaza it is she would follow the rules prescribed. And, if she is sure that the type of Istihaza will not change by the time she stands for her prayers she may carry out the test before the time for prayers sets in.
411. If a mustahaza woman starts her prayers without making any investigation,
but her intention is to obey the orders of Allah and act according to her duty
then her prayers are valid. For example, if her Istihaza was little, and she
acted according to its rules, her prayers will be correct and valid.
But if she did not have the intention of obeying Allah or following the rules, her prayers would be invalid. For example, she followed the rules of little Istihaza while in actual fact she was in the medium one, her prayers would be invalid.
412. If a mustahaza woman cannot discern about her Istihaza she should act according to the minimum certitude. For example, if she does not know whether her Istihaza is little or medium she should follow the rules which are prescribed for little Istihaza. And if she does not know whether her Istihaza is medium or excessive she should perform the rules prescribed for the medium Istihaza. But, if she knows which of the three kinds of Istihaza she has had previously, then she should act according to the rules for that kind of Istihaza.
413. If at the time of its initial appearance the blood of istihaza remains within the interior of the body and does not come out, it does not nullify the Wudhu and Ghusl already performed by the woman. And if it comes out, it nullifies the Wudhu and Ghusl even if its quantity be very small.
414. If a mustahaza woman examines herself after Namaz and finds no blood, she can say other prayers with the same Wudhu, even if she knows that the blood would reappear.
415. If a mustahaza woman knows that since the time she has engaged herself with Wudhu or Ghusl blood has not come out of her body, she can defer offering prayers for as long as she knows she will remain in that pure state.
416. If a mustahaza woman knows that before the time for prayers comes to an end, she will become totally Pak, or if she knows that at certain time, bleeding would stop for the time required for offering prayers she should wait and offer prayers when she is Pak.
417. If a Mustahaza, after having done Wudhu and Ghusl, finds that the
bleeding has ceased, and she feels that if she delays the prayers she will become
fully Pak, within the time required for Wudhu, Ghusl and Namaz, she should delay
the prayers, and offer them after performing fresh Wudhu and Ghusl when she
has become fully Pak.
But if time for prayers is limited, it will not be necessary for her to perform Wudhu and Ghusl. She should offer prayers with the Wudhu and Ghusl which she already has.
418. When a mustahaza woman whose bleeding has been excessive becomes fully Pak, she should do Ghusl. However, if she knows that no blood was seen after having Ghusl for the previous prayers, it is not necessary for her to do Ghusl again. As for medium Istihaza, it is not necessary to do Ghusl after bleeding has stopped.
419. Mustahaza women, with little, medium or excessive bleeding, should commence their prayers immediately after having acted according to their respective rules, except in the situations described in rules 403 and 415. But to recite Adhan and Iqamah before Namaz or performing Mustahab acts like Qunut etc, will have no objection.
420. If a mustahaza woman who is required to allow no time gap between Wudhu or Ghusl and her prayers, does not act accordingly, she would make Wudhu or do Ghusl again and then pray without any delay.
421. If the blood of Istihaza has a swift flow and does not stop, and if stoppage of blood is not harmful to her, she should try to prevent the blood from coming out after Ghusl. And if she ignores doing so, and the blood comes out, she should offer prayers all over again if she had already prayed. Moreover, it is a recommended precaution that she repeats the Ghusl.
422. If blood does not stop at the time of Ghusl the bath is in order. But, if during the Ghusl the medium Istihaza becomes excessive it will be necessary for her to start Ghusl all over again.
423. For a Mustahaza woman who is fasting, it is a recommended precaution that she prevents the blood from issuing out of the body, throughout the day, as far as possible.
424. It is widely held that the fast of a woman whose Istihaza is excessive
will be valid only if in the night preceding the day on which she intends to
fast she does Ghusl for the prayers of Maghrib and Isha, and also does Ghusl
during day time which are obligatory for the daily prayers.
But most likely, the validity of her fasting does not depend on the Ghusl. Similarly, the validity of a woman fasting during medium Istihaza does not depend on the Ghusl.
425. If a woman becomes mustahaza after Asr prayers and does not do Ghusl till sunset her fast will undoubtedly be in order.
426. If a woman in little Isithaza finds out before starting the prayers that her bleeding has become excessive or medium, she should perform the rules prescribed for medium or excessive Istihaza as mentioned above. And if the medium Istihaza becomes excessive she should follow the rules prescribed for excessive Istihaza. And in case she has done Ghusl for medium Istihaza it would not suffice, and she should do Ghusl again for excessive Istihaza.
427. If the medium Istihaza becomes excessive while she is already in
Namaz, she should break the prayers and do Ghusl for excessive Istihaza and
also perform other relevant acts and repeat the same prayers. And on the basis
of recommended precaution she should perform Wudhu before Ghusl. And if she
does not have time for Ghusl it is necessary that she should perform tayammum
instead of Ghusl.
And if she finds that no time is left even for tayammum then she should, on the basis of precaution, not break the prayers and complete the same in that very condition. It will be necessary for her to offer Qadha later. Similar rules will apply if during the Namaz her little Istihaza becomes medium or excessive, she will have to discontinue her Namaz and follow the rules of medium or excessive Istihaza, whichever be applicable.
428. If the blood stops during Namaz and the mustahaza woman does not know whether or not it has also stopped internally, and if after her prayers she understands that bleeding had totally stopped, and she has sufficient time at her disposal to offer prayers again in the state of purity, it will be an obligatory precaution for her to act according to the rules applicable to her and pray again.
429. If the excessive Istihaza reduces to medium Istihaza, the Mustahaza
should perform the rules prescribed for excessive Istihaza for the first prayers
and then medium Istihaza for the later prayers. For example, if excessive Istihaza
becomes medium before Zuhr prayers she should perform Wudhu and do Ghusl for
Zuhr prayers; and for the Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers she should perform only
However, if she does not do Ghusl for Zuhr prayers and has time for Asr prayers only she should do Ghusl for Asr prayers. And if she does not do Ghusl for even Asr prayers she should do Ghusl for Maghrib prayers. And if she does not do Ghusl for that prayers as well and has just enough time for Isha prayers only, she should do Ghusl for Isha prayers.
430. If the excessive Istihaza stops before every Namaz and starts coming again she should do Ghusl before each Namaz.
431. If the excessive Istihaza reduces to little, the mustahaza should follow for the first prayers the rules prescribed for excessive Istihaza; and for the later prayers the rules prescribed for little Istihaza. Similarly, if the medium Istihaza becomes little she should follow rules prescribed for medium Istihaza for the first prayers and those prescribed for little Istihaza for the later prayers.
432. If a mustahaza woman neglects any one of the obligatory rules, her Namaz will be void.
433. If a woman who is in little or medium Istihaza wishes to engage in an act which requires Wudhu as a prerequisite, like touching the script of the Quran etc., she should make the Wudhu for the purpose. The Wudhu made specifically for Namaz would not be sufficient if she wishes to touch after the Namaz is over.
434. A mustahaza who has done her obligatory Ghusls can go into Masjid, pause for some time in it, and recite the verses of the Qur'an which contain obligatory Sajdah. It is also lawful for her husband to have sexual intercourse with her, though she may not have performed all the acts which are required before the prayers (e.g. changing the cotton and the pad). And it is not unlikely that these acts may be permissible even without Ghusl, but precaution is in avoiding them.
435. If a woman who is in the state of excessive or medium Istihaza wishes to recite, before the time of prayers, a verse of the Qur'an which contains an obligatory Sajdah or to enter a Masjid, she should, on the basis of recommended precaution, do Ghusl. And the same rule applies if her husband wishes to have sexual intercourse with her.
436. Salatul Ayat (due to solar or lunar eclipse etc.) is obligatory for a mustahaza woman and she should follow all the rules which have been explained in relation with the daily prayers.
437. When Namaz-e-Ayat becomes obligatory for a mustahaza woman at the time of daily prayers and she wishes to offer these two prayers one after the other she cannot, as per obligatory precaution, offer both of them with one Wudhu and one Ghusl.
438. If a mustahaza woman wishes to offer Qadha prayers she should follow the same rules as are applicable to the prayers offered within time. And as a precaution, she will not consider the acts performed for prayers within time as sufficient for Qadha prayers.
439. If a woman knows that the blood coming out of her body is not of a wound and cannot decide on it being the blood of hayz or nifas because of the absence of the properties defined by the Shariah, she should act according to the rules in respect of Istihaza. And if she doubts whether it is Istihaza or some other blood and it does not possess other signs she should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, follow the rules of Istihaza.