also see Love & hate for Gods sake
In Arabic there are three ways to criticize someone:
1. Fah’sh (Abusing)
2. Sab’b (Swearing)
3. La’nat (Cursing)
Fah’sh means to abuse someone verbally.
Criteria for Fah’sh:
It is not acceptable for a Mo’min to abuse someone verbally because it is insulting towards himself. Allah doesn’t like insolence of a Mo’min even if the target is an enemy of Allah, the Prophet (saws) or his Ahlulbayt(as).
Sab’b means to swear someone with harsh words. Unlike Fah’sh, the Sab’b is not insulting towards the Mo’min.
Sab’b as Allah’s Practice:
Sab’b is been used in Qur’an like in the two Aya below:
Deaf, dumb and blind - so they will not return Baqarah 18
May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined
Sab’b as Prophet’s Practice:
When the enemy ‘Amr-bin-Abd-e-Wud’ crossed the ‘Khandaq’ and challenged Muslims, Prophet PBUH said: Is there anyone for this dog?
Criteria for Sab’b:
Its not acceptable for a Mo’min to Sab’b another Mo’min because a Mo’min carries Wilayah of Imam Ali-bin-abi-Talib (as) in his heart. Instead one can Sab’b the enemy (i.e. someone who doesn’t believe in the Wilayah of true Aim’mah AS).
Some people believe that Sab’b is Haram and they quote this Ayah from Qur’an as a proof:
Revile not ye those whom they call upon besides Allah :Anaam 108
Trying to prove the agenda by quoting only a part of the Ayah is no different from proving that a Mo’min should stay away from Namaz by quoting (Believers, do not come close to prayer) and not quoting the rest (where Allah says ‘when you are intoxicated’).
Every sensible person knows that doing so is a mere dishonesty towards Allah, Qur’an and the Prophet PBUH.
Even if we consider this correct then we will have to accept that there is a clash between Allah’s words and his actions because Allah is prohibiting Sab’b and on the other hand he himself is doing Sab’b in Qur’an.
The answer to this reasoning is that for sure Allah has prohibited Sab’b in this Ayah but also, he comes up with a condition in the very next sentence lest they out of spite revile Allah in their ignorance.
So, if the condition is the same as described in Ayah then Sab’b is Haram but otherwise we can do Sab’b and that’s the reason why Masoom said:“Don’t Swear our enemy because he will swear us back, for he is not aware of us.”
So, if you are sitting aloof and there is nobody around who loves the enemies of Ahlebait, then there is no prohibition of doing Sab’b. You can choose whatever words you like for Sab’b,but don’t enter the boundaries of Fah’sh.
La’nat is the opposite of Rehmat which means pushing away the mercy of Allah. This word is used almost 50 times in Qur’an.
La’nat as Allah’s Practice:
Allah has done La’nat several times in Qur’an. Here we quote two of them:
Verily Allah has cursed the Unbelievers (Ahzab
Annisa 93) And the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him
Those who annoy Allah and His Messenger - Allah has cursed them in this World and in the Hereafter (Ahzab 57
Some people take La’nat very lightly and think its just a withdrawal from ALLAH’s blessings. Their tone indicates that they consider La’nat little and negligible.
Being away from the mercy of Allah means nothing but hell and limitless punishment -A’zab.!
So, one should not take La’nat lightly and if you want to curse Allah’s enemies with some harsh words, do La’nat.