Adhan and Iqamah
925. It is Mustahab for man and woman to say Adhan and Iqamah before offering daily obligatory prayers, but for other Mustahab or obligatory prayers, they are not prescribed. But before prayers of Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adha, it is Mustahab to say "As-Salah" three times, provided that the prayers are going to be offered in congregation.
926. It is recommended that Adhan be pronounced in the right ear of the child, and Iqamah in its left ear, on the day it is born or before the umbilical cord is cast off.
927. Adhan consists of the following 18 sentences:
Allahu Akbar - four times
(Allah is greater than any description)
Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah - two times
(I testify that there is no god but Allah)
Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah - two times
(I testify that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger)
Hayya'alas Salah - two times
(Hasten to prayers)
Hayya'alal Falah - two times
(Hasten to deliverance)
Hayya'ala Khayril 'Amal - two times
(Hasten to the best act)
Allahu Akbar - two times
(Allah is greater than any description)
La ilaha illal lah - two times
(There is no god but Allah)
As regard to Iqamah, it consists of 17 sentences. In Iqamah, Allahu Akbar is reduced in the beginning to twice, and at the end, La ilaha illal lah to once, and after Hayya 'ala Khayril 'Amal, Qadqa matis Salah (i.e. the prayers has certainly been established) must be added two times.
928. Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu'minina 'Aliyyan Waliyyullah ( I testify that the Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (AS) is the vicegerent of Allah) is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah with the niyyat of Qurbat.
929. There should not be an unusual interval between the sentences of Adhan or Iqamah, and if an unusual gap is allowed between them, the Adhan or Iqamah will have to be repeated.
930. If Adhan and Iqamah are recited in a melodious tune, rendering it musical, that is, like the way singers sing to entertain the people, it is haraam. If it it does not become musical, it is Makrooh.
931. Whenever a person offers two prayers together, one after the other,
he will not say Adhan for the second prayers if he has said it for the first,
irrespective of whether it was better in that case to pray together or not,
like on the day of Arafah (9th Dhul Hijjah) for Zuhr and Asr prayers, or the
night of Eid ul Adha for Maghrib and Isha at Mash'ar.
But the Adhan does not become necessary, only if there is no prolonged gap between the two prayers. A small time lapse between two prayers, caused by Duas or Nafilah, will not be taken as a prolonged gap. And if one gives Adhan, as per obligatory precaution, one should not make the niyyat of it being prescribed by Shariah, especially in the last two cases of Arafah and Mash'ar.
932. If Adhan and Iqamah has been pronounced for congregational prayers, a person joining that congregation should not pronounce Adhan and Iqamah, for his own prayers.
933. If a person entering a mosque finds that congregational prayers are over, he may not give Adhan or Iqamah for his own prayers, as long as the lines have not broken up, and the people have not dispersed. This means it is not an emphasised Mustahab act for him. If he intends to give Adhan or Iqamah anyway, then it should be with very low voices. If he is joining another prayers with congregation, he should not give Adhan or Iqamah.
934. At a place where congregational prayers have just ended, and the lines have not yet broken up, if a person wants to begin his prayers individually, or with another congregation, he is exempted from pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah on six conditions:
If prayers are offered in a mosque. If it is not offered in a mosque, the exemption from pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah is not established.
If Adhan and Iqamah has already been recited for the preceding prayers.
If the congregational prayers offered is not void.
When the prayers of the person concerned, and the congregational prayers are offered at one and the same place. If the congregational prayers are offered within the mosque, and he wants to offer prayers on its roof, it is Mustahab that he should pronounce Adhan and Iqamah.
When the congregational prayers have been offered within prescribed time (Ada'). His own prayers which he wishes to offer may not necessarily be within time.
When both, his prayers and the congregational prayers, are for common time.
For example, both of them should be offering Zuhr prayers or Asr prayers.
The same is applicable if he prays Zuhr while the congregation prays Asr or vice versa. But if his praying Maghrib in its prime time, with a congregation which is offering Asr at its lapsed time, Adhan and Iqamah will not be exempted.
935. If a person doubts about the third condition out of the six conditions mentioned above, that is, if he doubts whether or not the congregational prayers are void, he is exempted from pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah. But if he doubts about any one of the remaining conditions, it is better that he should pronounce Adhan and Iqamah, with the niyyat of Raja' (a hope that he may be doing a worthy deed).
936. It is Mustahab that when a person hears Adhan, he follows by uttering together in a low voice whatever he hears.
937. If a person hears another person pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah, regardless of whether he has repeated with him the same or not, he may not say Adhan and Iqamah for his own namaz, if there is no delay or time gap between them and his namaz.
938. If a man listens to the Adhan pronounced by a woman with lustful amusement, he will not be exempted from pronouncing Adhan. In fact, even if intention is not lustful, the exemption is a matter of Ishkal.
939. It is necessary that the Adhan and Iqamah of a congregational prayers are pronounced by a man. However, if a woman pronounces Adhan and Iqamah in a congregational prayers of women, it is sufficient.
940. Iqamah should be pronounced after Adhan. Moreover, Iqamah should be pronounced in a standing position, and with Wudhu, Ghusl or tayammum.
941. If a person pronounces the sentences of Adhan or Iqamah without proper order, like if he says 'Hayya 'alal falah' before 'Hayya alas Salah; he should repeat from the place where the order has been disturbed.
942. An inordinate lapse of time should not be allowed between Adhan and Iqamah, and if an excessive gap is allowed between them, it is Mustahab that Adhan be pronounced once again. Similarly, if an excessive time gap is allowed between Adhan, Iqamah, and the prayers, it is Mustahab to repeat them for that prayers.
943. Adhan and Iqamah should be pronounced in correct Arabic. Hence, if they are pronounced in incorrect Arabic, or one letter is uttered for another, or if, for example, its translation is pronounced, it will not be valid.
944. Adhan and Iqamah for a prayer should be pronounced when the time for that prayer has set in. If a person pronounces them before time, whether it be intentionally or due to forgetfulness, his action is void, except when the time of namaz sets in during the namaz being offered, then that is valid, as explained in rule 752.
945. If a person doubts before pronouncing Iqamah, whether he has pronounced Adhan, he should pronounce Adhan. But, if he doubts during Iqamah whether he has pronounced Adhan, the pronouncing of Adhan is not necessary.
946. If before pronouncing a part of Adhan or Iqamah, a person doubts whether he has pronounced the part preceding it, he should pronounce the preceding part. But, if he doubts when in the process of pronouncing a part of Adhan or Iqamah whether he has pronounced the part preceding it, it is not necessary to pronounce that part.
947. It is Mustahab that while pronouncing Adhan, a person should stand facing Qibla and should have performed Wudhu or Ghusl. It is Mustahab to place the hands on his ears, and raise one's voice. Also, one should pause between the recitals of different sentences, and should not engage in talking during Adhan.
948. It is Mustahab that at the time of pronouncing Iqamah, a person is at ease, and he pronounces it with a lower voice. While it is Mustahab not to join the sentences of Iqamah, there should not be that gap between them which is normally given in Adhan.
949. It is Mustahab that between the Adhan and Iqamah, a man should take a step forward, or should sit down for a while, or perform sajdah, or recite any Dhikr, or Dua', or become quiet for some time, or talk, or offer two Rak'ats of prayers. However, talking between the Adhan and Iqamah of Fajr prayers, or offering prayers between the Adhan and Iqamah of Maghrib prayers, is not Mustahab.
950. It is recommended that a person who is appointed to pronounce Adhan is a righteous person ('Adil), with the knowledge of timings, and his voice is loud. He should pronounce Adhan from an elevated place.