1054. A person offering prayers should perform two sajdahs after the Ruku, in each Rak'at of the obligatory as well as Mustahab prayers. Sajdah means that one should place one's forehead on earth in a special manner, with the intention of humility (before Allah). While performing Sajdahs during prayers, it is obligatory that both the palms and the knees, and both the big toes are placed on the ground.
1055. Two Sajdahs together are a "Rukn" (elemental), and if a person omits to perform two Sajdah in one Rak'at of an obligatory prayers, whether intentionally or owing to forgetfulness, or adds two more Sajdahs, his prayers are void.
1056. If a person omits or adds one Sajdah intentionally, his prayers become void. And if he omits or adds one Sajdah forgetfully, the rules regarding it will be explained later.
1057. If a person who can keep his forehead on the ground, does not do so whether intentionally or forgetfully, he has not performed Sajdah, even if other parts of his body may have touched the ground. But, if he places his forehead on the earth, but forgets to keep other parts of his body on the ground, or forgets to utter the Zikr, his Sajdah is in order.
1058. It is better in normal situation to say Subahanallah three times, or Subhana Rabbiy al-A'la wa bi hamdhi once. And he should utter these words in succession and in correct Arabic. Actually, as an obligatory precaution, uttering any Zikr to this extent is sufficient. And it is Mustahab that Subhana Rabbiyal A'la wa bi hamdhi should be said three, five or seven times, or more.
1059. In the Sajdah, the body should be steady, and one should not move or shake oneself purposely, and as a precaution, one should be totally steady in Sajdah even while one is not engaged in any obligatory Zikr.
1060. If a person intentionally utters the Zikr of Sajdah before his forehead reaches the ground, and his body becomes steady, or if he raises his head from Sajdah intentionally before the Zikr is completed, his prayers are void.
1061. If a person utters the Zikr of Sajdah by mistake, before his forehead reaches the ground and realises his mistake before he raises his head from Sajdah, he should utter the Zikr again, when his body is steady.
1062. If after raising his head from Sajdah, a person realises that he has done so before the completion of the Zikr of Sajdah, his prayers are in order.
1063. If at the time of uttering Zikr of Sajdah, a person intentionally lifts one of his seven limbs from the ground, his namaz will be void. But if he lifts the limbs, other than the forehead, when he is not reciting anything, and then places them back again, there will be no harm, unless that movement renders his body unsteady, in which case, namaz will be void.
1064. If a person raises his forehead from the ground by mistake, before the completion of the Zikr of Sajdah, he should not place it on the ground again, he should treat it as one Sajdah. However, if he raises other parts of the body from the ground by mistake, he should place them back on the ground and utter the Zikr.
1065. After the Zikr of the first Sajdah is completed, one should sit till the body is steady, and then perform Sajdah again.
1066. The place where a person places his forehead for Sajdah should not be higher than four joined fingers, compared to where he places his knees and the tips of the toes. As a matter of obligatory precaution, the place of his forehead should not be more than four joined fingers lower or higher than the place where he stands.
1067. If a person prays on a sloped ground, whose slant may not be known exactly, and if his forehead goes higher or lower than the place where he keeps his knees and tips of the toes by a span of four joined fingers, his namaz will be a matter of Ishkal.
1068. If a person places his forehead by mistake, on a thing which is
higher than the span of four joined fingers compared to the place where his
knees and the toes are, and if it so high that it does not look like a normal
Sajdah, he should raise his head and place on a thing which is not as high. And
if the height does not change the appearance of the Sajdah, and his attention is
drawn to it after completing the obligatory Zikr, he should raise his head and
may complete the prayers.
But if his attention is drawn to it before the obligatory Zikr, he should gradually push or move his forehead to a lower level, and recite the obligatory Zikr. And if that is not possible, he should recite the obligatory Zikr and complete his prayer. It would not be necessary for him to repeat the prayers.
1069. It is necessary that there should be nothing between the forehead of the person offering prayers, and the thing on which he offers Sajdah. If the mohr (sajdagah) is so dirty that the forehead does not reach the mohr itself, the Sajdah is void. But if only the colour of mohr has changed, there is no harm.
1070. In Sajdah a person offering prayers should place his two palms on the ground. In a state of helplessness, there will be no harm in placing the back of the hands on the ground, and if even this is not possible, he should, on the basis of precaution, place the wrists of hands on the ground. And if he cannot do even this, he should place any part of the body up to his elbow on the ground, and if even that is not possible it is sufficient to place the arms on the ground.
1071. In Sajdah, a person should place his two big toes on the ground, but it is not necessary to place the tips of the toes. If he places the outer or the inner parts of the toes, it will be proper. But if he places, instead other smaller toes on the ground, or the outer part of his feet, or if his big toe does not rest on the ground due to very long nails, his namaz will be void. And if a person does not follow this rule due to ignorance or carelessness, he has to pray again.
1072. If a part of the big toe is cut off, one should place the remaining part of it on the ground, and if nothing of it has remained or what has remained is too short, he should, on the basis of precaution, place the other toes on the ground, but if he has no toes at all, he should place on the ground whatever part of the foot has remained.
1073. If a person performs Sajdah in an unusual manner, like if he rests his chest and stomach on the ground, or stretches his feet, his namaz will be correct and valid if it still appears like a normal Sajdah. But if it appears more like sleeping on one's stomach, rather than a Sajdah, his namaz will be void.
1074. The mohr (sajdagah) or other thing on which a person performs Sajdah, should be Pak. If, he places the mohr on a najis carpet, or if one side of the mohr is najis, and he places his forehead on its Pak part, there is no harm in it.
1075. If there is a sore or a wound etc. in the forehead of a person, making him unable to rest his forehead on the ground, and if the sore or the wound has not covered the whole of the forehead, he should perform Sajdah with the unaffected part of the forehead. And if it becomes necessary to dig a hole, or a pit so that the part with the sore or the wound stays there, while the healthy part is on the ground, he should do so.
1076. If the sore or the wound has covered the entire forehead, he should perform Sajdah with other parts of his face. As an obligatory precaution, he should perform Sajdah with his chin, and it that is not possible, with one of the two sides of the forehead. When it is not possible to perform Sajdah with the face in any way, he should perform Sajdah by sign.
1077. If a person can sit but cannot make his forehead reach the ground, he should bow as much as he can, and should place the mohr or any other allowable thing on something high, and place his forehead on it in such a way that it may be said that he has performed Sajdah. But his palms, his knees, and toes should be on the ground as usual.
1078. If a person cannot find something high on which he may place the mohr, or any other allowable thing, and if he cannot find any person who would raise the mohr etc. for him, then as precaution, he should raise it with his hand and do Sajdah on it.
1079. If a person cannot perform Sajdah at all, he should make a sign for it with his head, and if he cannot do even that, he should make a sign with his eyes. And if he cannot make a sign even with his eyes he should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, make a sign for Sajdah with his hands etc. and should make a niyyat for Sajdah in his mind, and recite the obligatory Zikr.
1080. If the forehead of a person is raised involuntarily from the place of Sajdah, he should not, if possible, allow it to reach the place of Sajdah again, and this will be treated as one Sajdah even if he may not have uttered the Zikr of Sajdah. And if he cannot control his head, and it reaches the place of Sajdah again involuntarily, both of them will be reckoned as one Sajdah, and if he has not uttered the Zikr, as a recommended precaution, he will do so with the niyyat of Qurbat.
1081. At a place where a person has to observe taqayyah (concealing one's faith in dangerous situation) he can perform Sajdah on a carpet, or other similar things, and it is not necessary for him to go elsewhere, or delay the prayers so that he is able to pray freely at that place without taqayyah. But if he finds that he can perform Sajdah on a mat, or any other allowed objects, without any impediment, then he should not perform Sajdah on a carpet or things like it.
1082. If a person performs Sajdah on a mattress filled with feathers, or any other similar thing, his Sajdah will be void if his body cannot remain steady.
1083. If a person is obliged to offer prayers on a muddy ground, and if no hardship will be caused to him if his body and dress become soiled with mud, he should perform Sajdah and tashahhud as usual. If it is going to prove extremely hard for him, he should make a sign for Sajdah with his head while he is standing, and recite tashahhud in the standing position. His prayers will be in order.
1084. The obligatory precaution is that in the first Rak'at and in the third Rak'at, which do not contain tashahhud (like the third Rak'at in Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers) one should sit for a while after the second Sajdah before rising.